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Reconstruction-Proposal For Terpakistan

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FC: Reconstruction: Proposal for Terpakistan

1: Proposed by: Natalie Buono Giavanna Carangi | Terpakistan

2: The issue of bringing the Southern states back into the Union started shortly after the Civil War began. President Abraham Lincoln started developing a plan for restoring a regular government in those states. He wanted to accommodate the South with the Union instead of punishing them for treason. This plan was set forth in the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. | 10% Plan | This plan offered amnesty, or forgiveness, to Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the U.S and accepted Unions proclamations concerning slavery. When 10% of states' voters in 1860’s presidential election had taken this oath, they could organize a new state government. Natalie Buono Gia Carangi

3: Based on this plan and looking back in history we propose to you, the President of this country, that you follow the basic underlying message or option of this plan. The message that President Lincoln was trying to bring forth was that if the majority of the people in a joint program do feel as though something is not right for their country then you should be able to give them the right to at least be involved with the progress of building their nation again. Natalie Buono Gia Carangi

4: Black Codes The black codes were a series of laws passed by the Southern state legislatures. This limited African Americans’ rights in the South. They were slightly different from state to state but they were still kept similar to slavery conditions. There was a requirement to enter into annual labor contracts, children had to accept apprenticeships and could be whipped or beaten while serving. Also there were set working hours, and licenses to work in non agricultural job. All of this angered those of the North. | When being given the option to accept this ruling in your country we propose to you that you do not offer something similar to the Black Codes to your citizens. We feel very strongly about this because everyone; no matter race, gender, or age should have to be put aside in any country. Everyone deserves a chance to show who they are and what they have to offer to the country of Terpakistan. Natalie Buono Gia Carangi

5: Former slaves worked on the land abandoned by plantation owners with success. In 1861 the Union discharged the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor, Port Royal. White residents left leaving 10,000 black slaves behind. Northern private charity organizations stepped in to help former slaves become self sufficient. These African Americans showed the ability to work on land efficiently and live independently. This was a model of what Reconstruction could have been, known as the Port Royal Experiment. When these African Americans got the opportunity to live and work on their own, they really excelled. They showed the people of America that they do not need to be controlled by any high power. Experiments like this are what helped step away from slavery and the idea of one being "property". Gia Carangi | The Port Royal Experiment

6: The Freedmen’s Bureau was made up of thousands of freed Americans’ who followed General William Sherman’s troops when he marched to the sea, looking for food and shelter. Sherman withheld all abandoned plantation land for these men. The Union troops settled more than 40,000 blacks on land in South Carolina and Georgia. Congress established this as the Bureau of refugees, freedmen and abandoned lands known as Freedmen’s Bureau. | Their task on this land was to feed and clothe war refugees in the South. They also helped formerly enslaved people to find work on plantations. These men worked with northern charities to educate formerly enslaved African Americans. They paid teachers, had housing for schools and helped establish colleges for training black teachers. Gia Carangi Natalie Buono | Freedmen's Bureau

7: This organization was very beneficial to those suffering during that time. We propose to you that, having an organization like this one will help those affected by the war in Terpakistan causing greater population growth and a larger economy for this country.

8: 13th Amendment This amendment to the US Constitution stated that slavery and involuntary servitude was out lawed. This amendment was the first of three to be put into action in this time period. NB | 14th Amendment This amendment to the US Constitution granted citizenship to all people born in the United States and stated that the state could not deprive any person of life, liberty, and property without a trial. NB | 15th Amendment This amendment did not allow each state government in the United States from denying a citizen of their country the right to vote based on their "race, color, or previous condition of servitude. NB

9: From further reviewing all three of the Reconstruction amendments we feel as though you, the President of Terpakistan, should include all three of the Reconstruction amendments into their plan to better their country. All three of these amendments each give, not only the basic fundamental rights of each person but the crucial message that all of society should go by. These three Reconstruction Amendments are the "goals" needed to be reached, or achieved, by the people of your country. In earlier American History these three amendments were the groundwork for the goal of Reconstruction which was to finally unite the North and the South. Natalie Buono

10: Andrew Johnson | When Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act this then forced the Senate to approve the removal of any government official. When Andrew Johnson fired Stanton, Johnson refused to leave, causing the House of Representative to impeach Johnson. | Specifically speaking the Tenure of Office Act was intended to hold back the power of the President of the United States. | As your advisor's we feel as though the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson should teach not only you, the current President of this country, but to any person in power a lesson. The lesson being that just because one posses power does not mean that his/her power cannot be overthrown or taken away if possessed too seriously. Therefore the impeachment of Andrew Johnson should be a lesson the people of your country should learn. | Natalie Buono Gia Carangi

11: Civil Rights Act of 1866 | The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was a federal law that was meant to protect the rights of African Americans. This Civil Rights Act was enacted by Congress over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. | We propose to you, President of Terpakistan that you include an act similar to the Civil Rights Act of 1866 into the reconstruction of your country. By including this act into the rebuilding of your country, that everyone will better understand how discrimination shows no honor to the land you live in. Back in earlier American History we saw that discrimination lead the people no where. However we also propose to you that if you do decide to include an act similar to this one that the act should protect the rights of those citizens that feel neglected or abused by their country; no matter their race or gender. Natalie Buono

12: Civil Rights Act of 1875 | This act was to guarantee that everyone, regardless of "race, color, or previous conditions of servitude", had the right to the same treatment in public setting as everyone else was given. If a person was to be found guilty they could face a fine of $500-$1,000 plus an additional 30 days to a year behind bars. | We propose to you, President of Terpakistan,that in order for you to rebuild your country that you enforce an act similar to the Civil Rights Act of 1875. We feel this way because this act made the people of the United States take discrimination and slavery as serious as any other topic enforced by the law. This just proves that the majority of citizens will finally get the message of their wrong doing if enforce by an authority of the law | Natalie Buono

13: Klu Klux Klan | The Klu Klux Klan, also know as the KKK was a secret organization, which was one of the largest, was started in 1866 by a Confederate soldier. This organization tauted supporters of the Republican government. This organization disturbed republican meetings, drove the Freedmen's Bureau officials out of their communities, burned homes and tried to keep African American from voting. Some parts of this organization are still in effect today. | As your advisors, we feel as though it is uncalled for to have such an organization like the Klu Klux Klan in your country. This will only cause more violence and unwanted hatred between opposing parties. We believe that you would want the best for your country and to rebuild and renew your country, not to go back to where they started. | Natalie Buono

14: Carpetbaggers:

15: This picture to your left is a political cartoon drawn at the time of people called carpetbaggers. Carpetbaggers were people from the North coming to the South. Some of these people were elected or appointed to positions in the South's new state government. Many of the Democratic party supporters called these new people "carpetbaggers". This name originated from the suitcases the people arrived with. The cases were made of carpet fabric. The majority of carpetbaggers came to the South to take advantage of the region after the war ruined it. But others wanted to find a better opportunity and some teachers even moved to the South to provide an education. | Political Cartoon | We prose to you, president of Terpakistan that you do not let any person come into your country, unless you know that they have a positive outlook into your country and have no intentions of harming the project you are now building. | This cartoon symbolizes a carpetbagger named Carl Schurz. As depicted on his suitcase spells his name and the location he was coming from, in this case Wisconsin. He was traveling to Missouri. In the background you can see a group of people watching him come into their area. Southerners were never satisfied with Northerns coming into their area because they were always unsure of their motivations. | Natalie Buono

16: Scalawags | Scalawags were white Southerns who worked with the Republican party and supported Reconstruction. The name scalawags originated from an old Scotch Irish tern for weak, underfed, worthless animals. Scalawags were a diverse group, meaning many creeds and races joined the group to support Reconstruction. | As your advisors we propose to you, the President of this progressing country, these types of people will only bring your nation down. At this time scalawags were people who had hatred for the people in the south who were considered traders. | Natalie Buono

17: Even after slaves were declared free, many African Americans went back to working for while plantation owners. They were called tenant farmers and they paid rent on a piece of that land that they used for farming. Eventually these tenant farmers earned the name of sharecroppers. As a sharecropper you would not pay your rent in cash but rather in crops to cover the expenses. We believe that this also had a positive impact are the re upcoming country. It gave African Americans a chance to work doing what they are familiar with but in a way that does not involve abuse or neglect. They fended for themselves, growing there crops as well as paying for their expenses. | Sharecropping vs. Tenant Farming

18: Hiram Revels was the First Black man in the Unites States senate. He first worked as a church pasture and a school principle in Baltimore. After the Civil War he settled in Mississippi where he continued his religious work but was elected into senate in 1870. After retirement he served twice as president of Alcorn University, an African American college of Mississippi. We believe this to be one of the major turning points during Reconstruction. It was uncommon for a black man to be successful let alone in the U.S Senate. This changed things for the people of America and started to make the term "all men created equal" really hold true. Gia Carangi | Hiram Revels

19: The Colfax Massacre occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873 in Colfax, Louisiana. After the election for governor of Louisiana, a white militia overpowered the freedmen and state militia with the intent to gain control over the Grand Parish Courthouse in Colfax. Most of the Freedmen were killed after they surrendered leaving a total of around 150 with only three being white. This event had the most deaths of violent events following the disputed contest in 1872 between Republicans and Democrats for the Louisiana Governor’s office. Ulysses S Grant saw how hard it would have been to give the blacks rights and safeties they were promised. Massacres like this one definitely do not help move the country forward. This was yet another example of white men going against black men. If violent events of this nature keep occurring then this country will only crumble. Gia Carangi | Colfax Massacre

20: Charles Sumner was the senator from Massachusetts, leader of anti-slavery forces as well as a radical republican working to punish ex-confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. He devoted his energy to destroying slave power which was the efforts of slave owners taking control of the federal government to guarantee expansion of slavery. Preston Brooks almost killed Sumner on the Senate floor for his comment of slave owners being pimps. After Sumner’s recovery he returned as chief Radical leader in the Senate during this time period. He fought hard for equal civil and voting rights for the Freedmen. Sumner eventually lost all of his power inside the Republican party to Ulysses S. Grant. Even though what happened on the Senate floor was very negative we can see how passionate those men were about their beliefs. After Sumer's recovery he can back and kept fighting. Mr. President, we need to use those people with that passion and channel it to benefit our upcoming country. Gia Carangi | Charles Sumner

21: Ulysses S. Grant | Ulysses S. Grant was a commander of Union forces for which the Republicans trusted him to support the policies of Congress. When Johnson refused to leave office, the impeachment took away all of his power. Grant was then the most sensible candidate to run for office. He was also the most popular war hero in the North. In1868 the Republican convention nominated Grant to run for president. | As your advisors, when examining and researching this one of a kind man. we propose to you, in order to re-build your country that he serve as a role model to lead the behavior of whoever or however you wish to build your government. | Natalie Buono

22: Panic of 1873 cause a major economic depression. This panic was caused by the drop in demand for silver internationally. With the Jay Cooke bank failing, it eventually led to more banks to close as well as a temporary fall or the New York stock market. 89 railroads went bankrupt, 18,000 businesses failed, unemployment reached up to 14% and the stock market was closed for 10 days. This was undeniably a terrifying moment for Americans. We can not get back to this. Events like these have long lasting impressions on the people of this country. It sets the people in a panic and makes them believe that there is no hope. Reconstruction will no succeed if the country falls back to this. Gia Carangi | Panic of 1873

23: The Slaughterhouse Cases were the first U.S Supreme Court cases dealing with the fairly new Fourteenth Amendment. They were seen as pivotal cases in the early civil rights law of protecting the “privileges or immunities”. Butchers would slaughter animals with their remains going into the peoples drinking water causing cholera amongst the people. The Grand Jury could not move these slaughter houses South because they were located outside the city limits. After resolution by the court, they ruled that the amendment did not stop police powers of the state. It only affected the rights of a United States citizen and not state citizenship. So the butchers’ Fourteenth Amendments rights were not violated. The Court decided that this amendment was intent to protect former slaves so it could not be generally used. We believe that because the Fourteenth Amendment was new, these events occurred. The people were still trying to figure it out but it was all apart of reconstructing the country. Gia Carangi | Slaughterhouse Cases

24: After the elections of 1866, the Radical Republicans gained almost all control over the House of Representatives and Senate. They then gained power to override any possible vetoes by President Andrew Jackson. This then started the Radical Reconstruction in 1867. White Democrats counterattacked and gained back power in each state by 1877. The Freedmen became second class citizens and the Southern whites were bitter towards the North and formed a Democratic “Solid South”. The implementation of the U.S military was vital in establishing the reconstruction of the Southern state governments as well as the abolishment of violence between black and white voters. Reconstruction showed to be a very significant part of American Freedom. Gia Carangi | Radical Reconstruction

25: William T. Sherman issued his Special Field Order No. 15, which was a military order for more land stretching from Charleston, South Carolina, to the St. John's River in Florida. This order came from the successful trip from Sherman’s March to the sea in Georgia. Lincoln approved Field Order No. 15 before Sherman issued it just four days after meeting with the black leaders. From Sherman's perspective the most important priority in issuing the directive was for military purposes to deal with the tens of thousands of black refugees that were apart of the march to sea. These orders did not have much of an effect seeing as how they were revoked at the end of that year by Andrew Johnson. They were still created with good intentions to create space for the freedmen. Gia Carangi | Sherman's Order No.15

26: The Military Reconstruction Act was passed in 1867 by the Radical Republicans. This Act was made with the intentions of rebuilding the Southern governments. It was also made to ensure the civil rights of the free blacks in the South. This act divided the South into five military districts and placed them all under military control of the United States. There was a requirement for new Southern government officials as well as the passing of the 14th amendment. This was a way for the Radical Republicans to to punish the Southern states that had made up the Confederacy as well as making sure the freed slaves had their rights. This to us was not all good. By punishing the Southern states and limited freed black’s rights could only anger them more. Gia Carangi | Military Reconstruction Act

27: US vs Cruikshank (1876): was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment. The short term effect on blacks in the South was that they were left to the hostile state governments who did not do much to protect them. Voting registrations and elections were eventually made much more complicated, evidently leaving many blacks unable to vote. This case effectively made political parties’ use of paramilitary forces happen. Events such as this case were not a sign of progression in the black community, it was just another set back from becoming equal. Making moves such as complicating voting policies would not be smart if we are trying to unite everyone in every aspect of this country. Gia Carangi | US vs Cruikshank

28: Compromise of 1877 mainly stated that the Southern Democrats would acknowledge Rutherford B. Hayes as president only with the understanding that the Republicans would meet certain demands. This Compromise had multiple components. It finalized the removal of all federal troops from the former Confederate States; It appointed at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes cabinet; the construction of another transcontinental railroad was put into place; there was legislation to help industrialize the South. The only thing the Democrats had to return was the accept Hayes being presidents as well and respecting the blacks’ rights. We believe that most, if not all, compromises are a step in the right direction. For people of high power to be able to settle a dispute with other men is a great thing to see. This Comprise, along with many events like it, was a turning point in American Reconstruction. Gia Carangi | Compromise of 1877

29: Through out the 1870’s Southern Democrats had worked to regain control of their state and local government form Republicans. The southern democrats also called on whites to help “redeem”-or save- the south from “Black Republican rule”. Reconstruction was taken over by a political movement known as Redemption, which reestablished white leadership in the South. The main strategy behind this was violence and economic intimidation. Groups like the Ku Klux Klan and events such as the Great Depression all contributed to the formal end of Reconstruction. We can conclude that Reconstruction was ultimately a failure but had the best of intentions. Many aspects were contributors to building the country and moving forward however the negative events overpowered the positive. Gia Carangi

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  • Title: Reconstruction-Proposal For Terpakistan
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