S: The Reformation Ap Euro Edition
FC: The Reformation by Michael Beauregard
1: The Reformation began In Germany thanks in part to the invention of the printing press and Germany's distance from the Pope in Italy. The printing press allowed for Bibles to be printed in mass quantities (many in different vernaculars) and Germany's distance from the center of the papacy which as well as Germany consisting of different kingdoms allowed for ideas to be accepted more easily. | Compilation of German nation states
2: The Reformation occurred hand in hand with the changes of European society during the Renaissance. The Reformation was a response to social and religious injustices in E | In addition to the inspirational spirit of the Renaissance pre-reformation events such as the Great-Schism and the papacy being located in Avignon allowed the Protestant movement to progress.
3: As the medieval church tried to gain more political power and strayed away from leading spiritually people began to loose faith in the Church, a church which was not just corrupt but had adopted systems of gaining money that was not justified. | People began to break away from the Church and supported a more simplified religious life. The Reformation embraced as well as rejected ideas of the Renaissance. The reformation did not really change Spain and Italy which remained mostly Catholic. | Desiderius Erasmus was a CatholicHumanist who criticized the church and ultimately inspired religious reformers such as Martin Luther
5: Lutheran, Calvinist and Anglican were some of the Protestant groups that spread in different European regions.These groups were some of the more moderate reformers of the Protestant era. Calvinism was present in some parts or France as well as Scotland Lutherans were dominant in the Germanic states. The Anglican church was dominant in England and initially was just a moderate version of Catholicism
6: Martin Luther | Martin Luther was a German theologian who wanted to ultimately reform the Roman Church. However his followers established the Lutheran Church. Martin Luther was against the use of indulgences and also believed that justification into heaven was done by complete faith in Jesus Christ.
7: This image depicts Martin Luther as he posts his 95 theses on the door of a church. The 95 theses were a list of attacks on the wrong doings of the Roman Church. For the most part Luther was opposed to the use of indulgences by the church.Indulgences were remissions of temporal penalties. In exchange for money people would be forgiven of sins or basically pay their way into heaven. | Martin was most influential in the German states
8: John Calvin was a French theologian. He was against the elaborate ceremonies of the church and believed in an omniscient omnipotent God. Calvin was the founder of the Calvinist church he also helped create a strict religious theocracy in Geneva. | Spread of Calvinism Calvinism had a scattered influence in parts of Northern Europe and France picture to the right(Green
9: In his work, Calvin opined that all men are flawed and corrupt and no one can ever know God or participate in his own salvation. God is omniscient and omnipotent and has preordained everything that will ever happen. In his merciful magnificence, God has already chosen which people will be saved and which will suffer eternal damnation. If man imagines that he can change the will of God through his actions, he has simply shown that he does not understand the greatness and glory of God (John Calvin).
10: John Wycliff was a pre-reformation religious leader. He believed that or influenced many in England that the government had superiority over the Church. Wycliff believed that clergy should live a more impoverished lifestyle and be happy with only the necessary goods. Wycliff also was opposed to or questioned the Church's use of indulgences and religious sacraments.His followers were known as lollards | John Wycliff
11: Jan Hus was a religious leader who was influenced by the theological ideas of John Wycliff. He led the religious reform in Bohemia, the home to the Czech ethnicity. Hus preached in the Czech vernacular and criticized religious ceremonies. His followers were known as Hussites. | Jan Hus | Wycliff and Hus did not claim their extreme Hussite andLollard followers.
12: King Henry VIII of England was the founder of the Anglican Church. King Henry was in need of a male heir to the throne and could not get one from his first wife Catherine of Aragon,the former wife to Henry's dead brother Arthur. After the Catholic church would not allow a divorce of Catherine Henry established his own church with him as the head. This began the later English Reformation.
13: Anne Boleyn was Henry's second wife and regarded as a evangelist patron by religious reformers. She was executed by Henry for allegedly committing adultery. | Mary Tudor was Henry VIII's sister and wife of King Louis XII of France. She was a Catholic who showed opposition and disagreed with Henry ending his first marriage and splitting form the Catholic Church.
14: Sir Thomas Moore known for his literary work Utopia was a statesman and adviser to Henry VIII. Moore was a devout Catholic and was beheaded when he denounced Henry as the head of the Anglican Church. | William Tyndale was a religious reformer from England. He is known for writing the first Bible in the English vernacular that was in use by the Church of England.
15: Elizabeth I | Elizabeth I was the Queen of England and daughter of Henry VIII. Under her rule the Anglican church was strengthened and made more changes to it. She did not want to persecute Catholics personally but measures were taken to get rid of Catholicism in England. She ruled without a heir for forty-five years.
16: Ulrich Zwingli | Ulrich Zwingli was a protestant reformer in Zurich Switzerland. He was the leader of the Swiss Reformation. He criticized the church for the use of indulgences and believed in restructuring both the religious and political and social world. Zwingli was a humanist and also believed that the bible was the source of religious teaching.
17: Due to the fact that during the reformation politics and religion were intertwined religious wars that had political motivations broke out between multiple European nations and collections of kingdoms. | Some of the conflicts that erupted as a result of the reformation was the thirty years war that was fought between German protestants and Catholics. Most conflicts resulted from the tensions between different protestant sects Catholics and protestant extremists.
18: Radical Reform Groups Extreme Protestants | Anabaptists had support in scattered support around Poland and Austria. Anabaptist did not agree with baptizing babies and youth and saw baptism as something people do on their own. Anabaptists were persecuted by almost all other protestant and catholic groups and nearly wiped out.Anabaptists partially influenced Baptists in America today.
19: Anti-Trinitarians were a group widely opposed to the ideas of predestination and original sin put forward by John Calvin. Anti-Trinitarians rejected the Holy Trinity and today have a more widespread influence on Christian followers.
20: Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation
21: The Catholic Church, in response to the Protestant Reformation began its own structural adjustment. The Church began to take the corruptness out of the church reforming the use of indulgences but sticking to Catholic customs and ceremonies. The Church also began to better educate their clergy whom previously some could not even read Latin. | The Counter Reformation was the Catholic Churches attempt to suppress the spread of protestantism and used forms of propaganda persecution and violence as means to solving the ever diminishing power of the Church.
22: Levin, Carole. "Elizabeth I." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. Bilney." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. "John Calvin." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. Elston, Timothy G. "Mary Tudor." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. Warnicke, Retha. "Anne Boleyn." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012 | Works Cited
23: Works Cited Google images ( | Davis, Paul K., and Allen Lee Hamilton. "Hussites." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. Google images(image search lead to useful websites) Kagan Textbook:The Western Heritage AP Edition Catholic Encyclopedia: NewAdvent.org "John Wycliffe." Image. Library of Congress. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012.