FC: Spring Study Guide Sally Ritchie
1: Context Clues | A context clue helps to figure out a word you don't know. It is where you don't know what a word in a sentence means and you look at the other words to figure out. | Ex: Everyone stared at the pulchritudinous flower, as its beauty fascinated them. You would then use the other words in the sentence to find out that pulchritudinous probably means pretty or good-looking.
2: Figurative Language | Similes | A figure of speech that compares two different things using like or as. | It is something used in writing to add interest. Generally, figurative language is not meant to be taken literally. | Ex: The blooming trees were like waves of spring fragrance. | Metaphors | A metaphor is very similar to a simile with the exception of like or as. | Ex: Spring is the beginning of all new things.
3: Analogies | Analogies is a comparison between two things that have some sort of similarity. | Ex: Spring is to fresh as Winter is to brittle. | Imagery | Imagery is a description using one of your five senses. | Ex: The honey tasted of sweetness. | Onomatopoeia | A word or two that describes a sound. | Ex: The wind swished through the green leaves of the tree.
4: Personification | A personification gives an inanimate object human characteristics. | Ex: The flowers stretched out to the sky. | Hyperbole | It is an extreme exaggeration. | Ex: The slightly breezy field felt like heaven on earth. | Idiom | A figure of speech unique to its language and does not actually mean what it translates to be. | Ex: She has a green thumb. In English this does not literally mean that she have a green thumb, but that they are good at gardening.
5: Symbolism | Symbolism is some sort of visual aid that makes you think of a certain thing and stands for it. | Ex: If you saw an Easter egg you would automatically think of Easter.
6: Text Structures | Text Structures are different styles of writing used to put through your information. | Sequence | Sequence is a text structure that goes through something in chronological order. | Ex: First, I went outside. Then, I planted the seeds. After, I waited. Finally, the flowers bloomed. | Problem/Solution | A text structure in which there is a problem given, and then a solution. | Ex: The boy was crying because he hurt his knee while playing outside. His mother came and gave him a band-aid and kiss and it was all better.
7: Comparison/Contrast | A text structure where it gives similarities and differences of two or more things. | Ex: The two flowers were very much the same. Both had pink, delicate petals and small but proud stature but while one was just beginning to bloom the other was showing slight signs of whithering. | Description | Something that simple gives details about something and simple information. | Ex: The girl, Talia, loved to garden. Everyday she would come outside and sit in the sun while tending her plants. It gave her great pleasure and she won many awards for her carefully grown flowers.
8: Cause/Effect | A text structure that shows the effect of some action taken or done. | The villagers had deserted the naturally fertile land ages ago and as a result, a field of flowers had sprung up.
9: Summary | A summary is a brief repetition of a writing that covers the main ideas. | Ex: The new interior designer that the Hammens had hired did an excellent job with their patio decoration. Every thing was exactly in place and during their big reveal to their friends and family, everyone was astounded with a shock of pleasure. Summary: That Hammens hired a new interior designer who did a good job and everybody was pleased.
10: Topic/Main Idea | What a whole writing is about and based upon. | Ex: While most people may think Spring to be an enjoyable season for all, the people of Sunset Valley would disagree. In Sunset Valley there are numerous Hyaung Trees. Now what are Hyaung Trees you're wondering? They are a very rare hybrid of trees created by scientist Bob Bobolow that bloom every spring. They attract a certain breed of mosquitoes when they bloom. These mosquitoes carry a very irritating chemical to humans and when they bite they leave large red welts that are both painful and itchy, last for up to two months, and often leave scars. This is an ongoing problem the residents experience every spring and it interferes with their day to day lives to create a devastating effect. Scientist Jim Jubolow is at this very moment working on a way to solve this problem but he needs your help. So we ask you, please donate to Sunset Valley Saviors at svsaviors.net. The people will thank you. Topic: The people of Sunset Valley have a mosquito problem.
11: Supporting Details | They are information in the writing about the topic. | Ex: "story to left":They are all in blue. | Theme | Ex: Roger looked over at the small girl and grinned. He would win against her easily. It was his family's annual Spring games and this girl was supposed to spar with him. They would use big foam sticks and try and knock each other off and into the cool pond below. She looked so small and frail he was sure there was absolutely no way she could win. The signal was made to start. He grinned again and haughtily did a small dance between his feet. He looked at the crowd and then looked back at the girl and to his surprise she wasn't there. He felt a small shove from beneath him. Just as he fell he glimpsed the girl, who had slid between his legs and shoved him off in the first ten seconds. Theme: Do not get to cocky and underestimate someone. | Moral of the story
12: Persuasive Techniques | Different techniques used in ads to persuade you to buy their product. | Bandwagon | An ad technique that basically gives off the message that everybody is doing it and so should you. | Ex: Everyone loves the new Spring Waterfalls home fragrance. People all around the world are using it and are deeply satisfied. Come see what its like! | Statistics | A technique that gives some sort of numerical proof of their product's superior quality. | Ex: Nine out ten people in a recent poll love our Tulip Sensations bath wash.
13: Testimonials | It gives peoples' reviews and ratings of a product, often a celebrity. | Ex: Jessica Simpson said "Oh man do i love my Floral Sunglasses. Chic yet in style!" | Glittering Generalities | It uses vague yet nice sounding words to enrich the appeal of the product. | Ex: This ultra-urban bedspread gives you a special and fluffy feeling inside. It's comfort surrounds you in your mystic dreams. | Emotional Appeal | It gives you a strong feeling inside that urges you to purchase the product. | Ex: These poor children have suffered heartache after heartache. Enrich their lives by sending them a bouquet of flowers.
14: Characters | The people, animals, or any other animated object that the writing follows. | Protagonist | The good guy in the writing. | Ex: The hero faced down all evil in order to have the town in peace again by the end of spring. | Antagonist | The bad guy in the writing. | The little girl sniffled as she looked at her crumpled garden. Her notorious neighbor had recently trampled it.
15: Setting | The area in which the writing takes place. | Ex: Melanie looked at her brothers in the house and out at the bright sunshine. Making up her mind, she decided she would rather play outside than inside with her brothers. She ran out of her quaint cottage and into the yard to relish the feeling of the warm sunshine on her face. The setting is Melanie's house. | Fact vs. Opinion | A fact is something that can be proved. An opinion is something that cannot be proved and is just what a certain person or persons think. | Ex: Fact- Roses are flowers. Opinion- This rose is the most beautiful thing ever.
16: Author's Purpose | What they are trying to get across, they could try to persuade you, entertain you, tell you how to do something, or inform you. | Ex: "pg 10" It is trying to persuade you to donate money. | Literary Devices | Things that help you build your story line. | Foreshadowing | Where the author gives hints about whats going to happen later in the story. | Ex: "pg 11" The foreshadowing is in purple.
17: Flashback | In the story on of the characters has a flashback and remembers or reminisces about something in the past. | Ex: Granny Sampson looked upon her daughter's wedding with tears in her eyes. It reminded her of her own wedding. In her mind she went back to fifty years ago. She was walking down the aisle. It was March 15. The air was breezy and fresh from all the flowers. All of the sudden she heard the words "i do" and came back to the marriage of her daughter.
18: Irony | It is a situation where the tables turn unexpectedly. | Ex: The soldier was coming back from the extreme war zone, miraculously unscathed. He saw his family and began to run toward them. Just as he was about to reach them, he was shot in the arm.
19: Bias | It is where the author has an opinion and it will show through there writing. They may not tell you the whole story to get you to think the same opinion as them. | Ex: An informational website about Martin Luther King that is run by and written by a pro-Nazi organization.
20: Plot | The time line of the story layed out into different sections. | Problem/Conflict | The problem that needs to be solved in the story. | Rising Action | The part leading up to the climax. | Subplots | Smaller stories not entirely part of the main story but add to it as a whole. | Resolution | The solution to the problem or conflict. | The high point in the story. | Climax | Falling Action | The part after the climax that is wrapping up the story. | Parallel Episodes | Something that happens repeatedly in different situations or the same situation with two different perspectives of it.
21: The End