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FC: Woodlands | by: Yael Klein, Adam Shechtman and Naomi Shapiro

1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | Pg. 1- Shelter Pg. 3- Special Events Pg. 5- Weapons Pg. 7- Tools Pg. 9- Geographic Location Pg. 11- Clothing Pg. 13- Special Dances Pg. 15-Transportation Pg. 17- Beliefs Pg. 19- Food Pg. 21- Social Structure Pg. 23- Today's Natives Pg. 25- Arrival of the Europeans Pg. 27- Art Pg. 29- Recreation and Games Pg. 31-Bibliography

2: This is a picture of a tepee. | 1

3: Some of the Eastern Woodlands group would need to use their shelter all year round. Others used small shelter for hunting animals. When making shelter they use simple tools and sometimes they would just use wood. They usually use tepees and sometimes they would use igloos They also built wigwams. They use poles to make the frame of a wigwam. They would take sheets of birch bark and put it over to protect them from the sun. | Shelter | 2

4: This is a picture of them doing there special event. | 3

5: The Woodland Natives hold many special events. In the spring time they hold a lot such as the maple sugar harvest which is a really special event. Next, a long time ago Ojibwa celebrated the feast of the dead. When they were not working in the fields, building or hunting they would also have special dances. Dancing is another important part in the Ojibwa tribe. Usually Ojibwa men and women would perform special dances separately. | Special Events | 4

6: At the bottom right it is the Woodlands' weapons. | 5

7: The Woodland Natives used many different weapons. They used blades,arrows, bows razor and spears. They also used weirs, which are traps they use to kill fish. The spears they used were to kill big game animals, and to kill the small game animals they would use smaller weapons. The blades they would use to kill animals the blades were very dangerous weapons.They were small and can fit in the palm of an adult's hand. They would sharpen the weapons so that they can easily kill animals. | Weapons

8: Here are woodlands tools. | 7

9: Tools that the Eastern Woodland Natives used were from wood and bark. They used tools to make their shelters and sometimes to carve weapons. Hunting large animals,they use bow and arrows. For smaller animals, they used traps, snares and deadfall. They used hooks for fishing with nets. All of the weapons they used were made out of materials from the forests. They made all of the weapons from tools. | Tools

10: The bottom right is the location of the Eastern Woodland Natives. | 9

11: There is a lot to learn about the Woodland Natives' geographic location. The landforms are lowlands plains and there are a lot of forests and a lot of uplands. The temperature range is 30 degree Celcius and there is about 200-300 mm. There is trembling aspen, willow, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, black spruce, balsam, fir and jack pine. And finally, the natural resources are salt, lead, platinum, nickel, zinc,silver,gold,copper, iron, ore, sulfur, cobalt, meat, cattle, fish, agriculture, dairy, herring, sardines, swordfish and salmon. | Geographic Location

12: The Natives wore feathers. Some kinds of feathers they wore are upright feathers and small strip horsehair. The wearer won one victory in fighting, a red feather showed player hurt, red dot showed a person killed a person, a red feather with bands showed that he was hurt but he killed someone. Men wore elaborate headdresses, and intricate beaded clothing patterns. Men wore leggings, and loincloth. Their free legs made them have strength to fight. In the summer, they were barechested. Women, who farmed, gathered fruit or vegetables wore skirts or dresses. All Native people wore jewelry. The Natives wore jewelry made out of bone, animal claws, or shells. They wore yarn and ribbons when they grass danced. | Clothing

13: These are the clothing that the men and women wore.

14: SPECIAL DANCES For ceremonial dancing, women and men danced separately. The dancers kept time to the beat of the drums. Dancers express stories by dancing about hunting or war. The grass dance is traditional, it's performed by men. Dancers make graceful swaying movements to represent grass blowing in the breeze. Dancers could be formal or informal. Nsqwaqn are formal ordered dancers, informal dances are Amalkay, which means, “An old way to dance” or “just move your body." Some dances imitate animal movements. In the snake dance, dancers move in a line that weaves around, coiling and uncoiling just like snakes do. Other dances mimic the birds, they swoop like them and they mimic there calls.

15: 14 | This is the dance where they express themselves. | These are the Natives dancing the grass dance.

16: TRANSPORTATION The warmer climate and the more fertile soil in the southern latitude allowed for advances in agriculture. Farming was very rudimentary, it allowed more sedentary culture to develop with different social and political structures then the northern migrate hunting, and gathering activities. Before European contact, the predominant language family is above and below the great lakes. There were large and powerful enclaves’ Iroquoian speaking people in the western parts of the territory Dakota language. They also used canoes to travel on water. They also walked to travel on land.

17: This is where the Natives traveled to.

18: THE PEOPLES’ BELIEFS Beliefs developed for thousands of years before the Europeans. Each of the Natives developed spiritual beliefs. When the Europeans arrived, the Natives found different ways to believe in g-d. First Natives’ elders incorporated traditional beliefs practicing their religious life turning entirely heritage to express their spiritual beliefs. Native traditions are passed down orally through generations. North American Natives' traditions are very much in common. Native people believe that the Great Spirit is created by the earth and its people. The Natives also believed that humans came from the sky world, the earth is the mother of life, the plants and animals have spirits that must be respected, honoured and cared for. It is a concept of not only human life but also the life of the world and all the things in it. Both real and unreal is where all the things are related and interconnected through a circle in life. The medicine wheel demonstrates how all life is interconnected and embarked in a circular journey.

19: The Natives giving an extra life to animals; the Natives’ beliefs for animal spirits.

20: FOOD SOURCES AND EXAMPLES The Natives collected edible plants and they hunted wild animals as their main food sources. They grew tobacco, corn, bears, and squash. During the winter or fall the families moved so they could hunt animals. In the summer, they would fish a lot, but they would still hunt. The most important eastern Woodland animal is the white- tailed deer; they hunted it for their meat. They hunted raccoons, bears, squirrels, beavers, moose, seals, caribou, and they fished for whales. The coastal people were able to fish for seals and whales. The northern regions could hunt for caribou and moose. They cooked the meat by either roasting or boiling it in fire and then ate it right away. They also smoked dried the meat, as a way to preserve it, and then saved it to eat in the future time when they were short on fresh meat. They spent a lot of time fishing in the St. Lawrence area, the Great Lakes and along the Atlantic Coast. They put their villages close to the fishing area. They fished in rivers and lakes and their diet included fresh water fish. The coastal people took advantage of the Ocean, and they caught a lot of eels, mollusk, and crustaceans. They also ate a lot of saltwater fish such as, cod, smelt, and salmon.

21: The Natives are hunting animals and fishing.

22: Natives and their chief | 21

23: Native Social Structure Native chiefs were probably one of the most respected people in Native times. They were mainly men but there were some women. They had many responsibilities which included leading hunting trips, offering advice and settling arguments. You became a chief either because of your mother, father or you proved you were worthy. The chief along with the elders in the tribe made up a council. The council is responsible for making important decisions. I think Native chiefs have very important and interesting roles. Most Natives lived with their extended families. The family made up a clan. Clans were named after totem animals. Many clans related by marriage made up a band. There was a chief for each band. Bands had 300-400 people. Many bands that spoke the same language made up a tribe. Tribes lived together in the summer, but lived just with their clan or band in the winter. Even though everyone had different jobs and were different ages everyone was treated with the same respect.

24: Different jobs of today's Natives | 23

25: Today's Natives Natives today don't all live on reserves. They live in small towns and big cities. The Natives that live in towns and cities go to regular schools and live in modern houses. There is always the option to go and live on a reserve, but they chose not to. It is good that Natives are now treated normally and not like the Europeans treated them. Some Natives still do live on a reserve. Not all the reserves are the same. Some reserves still live almost entirely in the traditional way while some are very modern and high tech. However, in all the reserves, there is a modern elementary school were the children learn both regular subjects and their Native language. The teenagers go to school at the high school in a nearby town. There is also a doctor and a dentist that come regularly. For money, people either made crafts and started a shop on the reserve or went to work in the nearby towns or cities. There are many different ways to live on a reserve and they are all good ways to live.

26: Europeans trading with the Natives | 25

27: European Arrival When the Europeans came to Canada they brought many changes. One of them was that the Europeans brought diseases that the Natives did not know about and could not cure. Those sicknesses killed many Natives. The Europeans did not know much about the Natives and heard many stories about them. When they came they were prepared based on the stories they heard. One of the Native tribes helped the Europeans. The dependence on the Natives made the Europeans distrust the Natives, but when winter came they realized that they couldn't have survived without the help of the Natives. No matter where in Canada, the Europeans that survived were the ones that got help from the Natives.

28: These are paintings made by the natives.

29: Native Arts For Natives, art was very important their daily lives. They had art in everything. They were also very talented artists. They could make almost everything into art. Art made things that were very important in their culture. When the Europeans came, the women made crafts to sell to them. Some of the things Natives used to make art with were porcupine quills and bones. Art for Natives is still very important today, it is how some Natives make a living on reserves. | 28

30: Natives practicing hunting with a game | Native game pieces

31: Recreation/ Games Natives used games and stories to learn skills and other important things. Instead of actually killing animals for practice,they made targets and practiced with those and they became games. A lot of their games are very similar to ours. The Natives also invented lacrosse which is now Canada's official sport along with hockey. Natives liked to tell stories. That's how their history gets passed down from generation to generation. The stories and games of the Natives were important to their lives and some of them still exist and play a role in our lives today. | 30

32: Bibliography | 30

33: 1.Canadian Oxford School Atlis, !904-2004. 2.Aloin, Molly and Kalman, Bobbie. Nations of the Northeast Coast. St. Catharines On. Crabtree publishing company. 3.Bob. When the Native American Indians First Met European Settlers. Feb 27 2012. 4.“Food Sources and Examples” Goldie Productions Ltd 21 Feb. 2012. Http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com 5.Geographic Location- Henderson, Patti, MacDonald Tracey, Kidd Heather, Miller Bret, Carolyn Anderson, Karen Britten, Tracey Learoyd, Phoenix Mapping Oxford University Press “ Can Goller, Claudin. Algonkian Hunters of the Eastern Woodlands. Toronto On. Grailer limited. 6.Living Traditions. Feb. 28 2012. 7.Lomberg, Michelle. The Ojibwa. Calgary. Wheig Educational Publishers Limited. 8.Shelter- Webster, Christine. Mi’kmaq. Calgary, Alberta, Canada copyright 2008. February, 21, 2012. 9.“Special Dances” Canadian heritage\Calgary/Alberta, Weigl, educational center, 10 Feb. 2012. www.native-dance.ca 10.Special events- Webster, Christine. Mi’kmaq. Calgary, Alberta, Canada copyright 2008. February, 21, 2012. 11.“The Peoples Beliefs” Inuit Tapirit Kanatami, Ottawa, 170 Laurier Avenue west, Suite 510 13 Feb. 2012. http://www. Cmp-cpm,forcesgc.ca/pub/rc/rel/ns-sa-eng. 12.Tools-- Webster, Christine. Mi’kmaq. Calgary, Alberta, Canada copyright 2008. February 10, 2012. 13.“Transportation” Copyright c 2007-2011 14 Feb.2012. www.native-art-inCanada.com 14.Weapons-- Webster, Christine. Mi’kmaq. Calgary, Alberta, Canada copyright 2008. February.10, 2012. 15.Webster Christine, “Clothing” Calgary, Weigl Native Americans Art and Culture, 6 Feb. 2012. 16.Webster, Cristine. Mi’kmaq. Calgery. Weigh Educational Publishers Limited.

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