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St. Lawrence Lowlands

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S: Iroquois

BC: St. Lawrence Lowlands By: Arielle Brooks, Dov Ellis and Natanel Ohayan.

FC: Iroquois | By: Arielle Brooks, Dov Ellis and Natanel Ohayan.

1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | page 2 Transportation page3 Geographic Location page 4 Weapons page 5 Food Sources page 6 Social Structure page 7 Origin Beliefs and Legends page 8 Arrival of the Europeans page 9 Culture page 10 Shelter page 11 Special Events page 12 Recreation and Games page 13 Role of Men page 14 Social Structure page 15 Clothing page 16 Main Tribes of the Geographic Zone page 17 Bibliography

2: Transportation The Iroquois Natives had different ways of traveling. Canoes were ways the Natives crossed on water to get from place to place. Toboggans were also ways to travel across snow, plus they are lots of fun to play with down a hill. Iroquois Natives also wore snow shoes. Snow shoes were to walk across the snow if the Iroquois Natives didn't want to use a toboggan. I think that we can agree that the Iroquois Natives had unique ways of traveling. | This is called a canoe; it was used for getting country to country on water.

3: GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION The Iroquois tribe was in the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The St. Lawrence Lowlands were located in the south of Quebec and Ontario. The landforms in the region were mostly large bodies of water such as some of the great lakes or the St. Lawrence river. The St. Lawrence Lowlands were considered as fertile with many waterways. The climate would vary throughout the year. As you can imagine the winter would be very cold with lots of snow and the temperature sometimes dropped to -30 degrees Celsius. The spring would be mild and they would probably have a lot of rain. The summers would actually be the hottest in Canada and the fall would start to get cold. In the fall, the Iroquois would start hunting more to have enough food because the animals would go into hibernation and the plants and rivers would freeze. The vegetation includes Maple Trees, Walnut, Oak, Spruce, Hemlock, Sassafras and Tobacco plants. The plants grow there because the soil is very fertile. | The St. Lawrence Lowlands

4: Weapons The Iroquois had many weapons for three reasons: hunting, fighting in battle and making peace. Here are some of the names of them: the warrior shield. It was made out of hard hide and painted with a personal symbol. There is also the warrior hatchet. That was used in peace offerings. There was also something called the coup stick that showed off a warrior’s bravery in battle. A pipe tomahawk was used in battle and for smoking tobacco. Arrows were used to hunt animals from distances. | This is the brass peace pipe tomahawk and it was used for chopping wood hunting and fighting in a battle.

5: Role of Women Wild fruit was usually gathered by the women. The community’s women were central to Iroquoian social organization. The women were in charge of sowing the crops, maintaining the field and harvesting. Children’s identities were derived from the mother. The Iroquoians' women’s position enabled them to participate actively in political life of the community. They also had the power to command the chiefs. They played an active role in military affairs. The women would instruct the chief to organize punitive expeditions to avenge the death of a family member. It was evident that the Iroquoian women were very busy. | This is a picture of an Iroquoian women working while the husbands out hunting.

6: FOOD The Iroquois had lots of food sources in their tribe. They had lots of animals, fish and meat. They also had different kinds of wild fruits, like wild cherries, strawberries, currents and huckleberries in their forests. They would collect all kinds of nuts like acorns, chestnuts and black walnuts. Maple sap was one of their only sources of sweetener. They would get the maple sap from the maple trees that they had in the forest. The Iroquois found how to make medicine out of the plants that they found in the forest. Corn, beans and squash were what they called the three sisters. They called them the three sisters because they used them in most of their foods. They had cornmeal corn cake, corn soup and corn pudding. They had many types of beans such as lima beans, kidney beans and sunflower seeds. Some of the different kinds of meat they had were deer, elk and raccoons. | 0. | Recreation and games In this picture an Iroquois man plays Snow Snake | This picture is of the three sisters.

7: Origin Beliefs and Legends The beliefs of the Iroquois are that the world was created from a woman. The woman was believed to have fallen from the sky. In this legend, the world was all oceans and the ocean had all of its animals. When the woman fell from the sky a great turtle saved her and let her climb onto his back. Each animal tried to swim to the bottom of the ocean to get dirt to make the ground but all failed. Then the great turtle gave the girl to two birds and plunged to the bottom of the ocean and emerged moments later with dirt on his back and the world was created on the back of the great turtle. Another belief of the Iroquois was that they're creator was named Ha-wen-he-yu. Ha-wen-he-yu was said to have an evil brother named ha-ne-go-ate-geh. He was supposed to rise if the Iroquois do not behave with respect and good manner. | This picture is the woman who fell from the sky, a character in their story of creation.

8: ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS The Europeans started to come to Canada around the late 1700’s. Jacques Cartier was one of the Europeans that sailed to Canada to find a better life. Jacques Cartier encountered a few Algonquin tribes such as the Mikmak tribe. Cartier referred to the Natives as savages and many people followed his example. When Jacques Cartier was near the Stadacona tribe he kidnapped Chief Donnoca’s two sons. Some Europeans tried to convert the Natives to Christianity and take them back to Europe. | This is a picture of the Europeans arriving in Canada.

9: CULTURE The Iroquois had lots of culture and traditions. Some we don’t really do today. In the Iroquois tribe, women and men are considered equals. The men in the Iroquois tribe had jobs. Some people were farmers, some people gathered forest products, some people went fishing and hunting and there were a lot of other jobs. The Iroquois tribe favoured an agrarian based staple diet. Naturally, they would eat corn, squash and beans. Nuts, roots, berries and greens were also consumed all year round. In earlier Native times they didn’t have the modern medicine we have today like Advil or Tylenol. They made their medicine out of herbs. Natives also got a lot of their food from hunting. Some of the animals they would hunt are Wild Turkey, Muskrat or Beaver. | This is a picture of the Iroquois people working

10: SHELTER All the Natives, not just the Iroquois, lived in longhouses. Longhouses were constructed of wooden frames covered with slabs of bark. In one village there would be about 30 longhouses lined up next to each other. The materials used to make longhouses consisted of elm bark, tree trunks and deer tendons. First, the Iroquois would bend wooden poles to make rectangular frames. Then, they would cover the whole frame with sections of bark. A finished longhouse would typically be 30- 200 feet long. The Iroquois would put holes on top of the longhouse to let the smoke escape when they lit a fire. | This an Iroquois made long house.

11: SPECIAL EVENTS Iroquois gather to celebrate the gifts given to them from the great spirit. The Iroquois' oldest festival was the Green Corn Festival. The Green Corn Festival was celebrated at the beginning of the corn harvest and would last several days. The largest festival was the Mid Winter Festival. The Mid Winter Festival lasted six days. The Mid Winter Festival was celebrated at the beginning of the year. There were some other festivals such as the maple festival, the planting ceremony and the thunder ceremony. | This is an Iroquois family celebrating the Green Corn Festival.

12: Recreation and Games The Iroquois were very active and loved to play skillful games. They would play agility games to help them gain strength. They would play different games according to the season. In the winter, they would play a game called snow snake. To play snow snake they would dig a path in the snow and pour water on it to make it smooth and slippery. They would take a long stick and slide it down the ice path. Whoever got it farthest would win. In the summer, they would play darts by throwing spears at a wooden board. One of their favourite games to play is lacrosse. They would make their own lacrosse equipment out of elm bark, wood and occasionally leather. The games were a very important thing for the Iroquois because it helped them learn skills for later in life. | In this picture an Iroquois man plays Snow Snake

13: Men in the Iroquois The men in the Iroquois tribe had many roles. Most of the men would fight and defend the tribe. Respect is something the Iroquois cherished. If a man in the Iroquois had lots of respect they could become the war chief. If a man was too weak to fight there were many other jobs for him. He could be a hunter, fisher or butcher. He could also be a medicine man. The men had little power in the family compared to the women. There is a tribe in New York where a woman is the war chief. The men and women would live in the long house. The long house is a house made of wood that the families would stay in. The men would generally work outside of the long house while women would sew and do indoor jobs. In the 1800s the Natives did jobs according to their gender. | In this picture there is a Iroquois warrior, which is one of the various jobs of the men.

14: Social Structure (Government) The Iroquois had made a confederation to unit six of the nations in peace. The confederation stated all sorts of rules and laws that would help the tribes operate in with little war and peace. The confederation was made in around 1100 and is still used now. People have started to call it the League of Six Nations because it united six different nations. The first five tribes that made up the confederation are The Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Mohawk and Oneida. The tribes would often fight until a leader named Dekanawidah, who came and made the Confederation. The Iroquois tribe would always meet as a tribe and discuss issues. | In this picture the Iroquois have a meeting around the fire.

15: Clothing The Natives had very fashionable clothes at the time. The Natives used to wear very unique but still pretty old clothes that were mostly worn a lot. There were many different names for their clothing like: the dream catcher, the stretched hide, the animal skin coat, the Naskapi caribou robe, mi’kmaq moccasins, leggings and the breech cloth. They were all very cool and nice clothes but there’s a really cool one called the mi’kamq chiefs coat. Their clothes were interesting and they were able to make it from nature. | These are moccasins. Moccasins are the typical every day shoes that natives would wear.

16: Main Tribes of the Geographic Zone The Iroquoians were basically into corn culture, growing beans and squash as well. The Iroquoians gardeners were released from winter time. This greater security and stability thus enabled the village dwellers to develop far more effective tribal authority. The Iroquoians could conduct purposeful inter tribal warfare. Inside palisades inhabitants lived in large bark covered long houses. The relationships came through a female’s line. A married man would have to move into his wife’s long house. Iroquoian society and culture showed aspects of both democracy and feminism. It seemed like the Iroquoians had an interesting and unique way of doing things. | This picture is of the location of the tribes in North America

17: ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS: NAME OF SITE: ucalgary.ca YEAR SITE WAS LAST REVISED: 2000-2001 NAME OF INSTITUTION: University Of Calgary and Red Deer College WEB SITE ADRESS: http://ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/home.html | NAME OF SIGHT: Buzzle.com YEAR SITE WAS LAST REVISED: 2000-2011,2012 WEB SITE ADRESS: | “Iroquois Creation Myth.” 3 Apr.2012.< http://www.cs.williams.edu/~lindsey/myths/myths_12.html> | Chapdelaine, C. (1992) The St. Lawrence Iroquoians (around 1500 CE) | Thematic Tours | Musée McCord Museum (1999) www.canadianheritage.org (2007) firstpeoplesofcanada.com, Heather Findlay, Anna Sajecki

18: GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION By: Michael and Larry | Chapdelaine, C. (1992) The St. Lawrence Iroquoians (around 1500 CE) | Thematic Tours | Musée McCord Museum (1999) www.canadianheritage.org (2007) firstpeoplesofcanada.com, Heather Findlay, Anna Sajecki

19: Sara,Courtney,Caitlin.”Recreation.”2 May. 2012. | AUTHORS’: Alex and Greg (no last names given) NAME OF SITE: westirondequoit.org NAME OF INSTITUTION: Ms. Floods Fourth Grade Class February 24 2012 http://www.westirondequoit.org/technology/k-6/iroquois_nation/inder.htm | SPECIAL EVENTS Lamberg, Michael The Iroquois Philidalphia Chelsea House Publishers (no further given information)

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