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Subarctic Natives

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BC: Thank you , we hope you learned something from our book.

FC: Subarctic Natives | Sarit Polsky, Daniel Dubrovsky, Camryn Chousky and Daniel Kurtz

1: Page 2,3: Geographical location Page 4,5: Shelter Page 6,7: Food Page 8,9: Weapons Page 10,11: Clothing Page 12,13: Clothing Page 14,15: Art Page 16,17: Social Structure Page 18,19: Special Events Page 20,21: Transportation Page 22,23: Beliefs Page 24,25: Arrival Of the Europeans Page 26,27: Subarctic people today Page 28,29: Bibliography | Table of contents

2: The Subarctic Natives lived all over Canada. They lived in; Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The weather varied depending on the season and the month. In the cold months, for example in January, it would be cold so the temperature would vary from -30 degrees Celsius as the coldest of days and -10 as some of the warmer winter days. Generally, the Subarctic Natives had snow between 100cm and under and 400cm and over. In the east part of their land, they would have 100-200 cm of snow normally. Also, in the middle part of their land they had less than 100 cm of snow. | Winters were cold in the Subarctic. | Geographical location | 2

3: In some of the warmer months for example, July, the weather would again vary from 10o – 20o degrees Celsius. They often had thunderstorms. As you can see, the Subarctic Natives had a lot of precipitation, however it allowed them to get hold of some excellent resources that would make their lives easier. | The Subarctic Region is orange on this map. | 3

4: The Subarctic Natives lived in many different dwellings. Most houses they lived in were small and easy to pack. Some lived in tepees which was a shelter made of animal skin supported by bones or brush lean-tos, which was a brush wall with bones for support. A wigwams was another shelter lived in, made from a wood frame and covered with skin, plants or bark. Wigwams could be used by anyone and could be any size. To make their dwellings warmer, the Subarctic Natives put fur in the interior. Many Subarctic Natives had few possessions so they didn't need to have a large house. The Subarctic Natives must have been really cozy in their homes. | Shelter | 4

5: A wigwam is a Subarctic dwelling. | 5

6: Food Sources Did you know that the Subarctic Natives had a lot of the same food we did? They were very good at hunting, fishing, trapping, farming and gathering. One of the foods that they ate was pemmican, which was a mixture of berries, grease and animal meat; it gave you lots of energy and could be preserved for years. The Subarctic people also ate wild berries, moose, caribou, hare, musk oxen, bear, elk, waterfowl, fish, whitefish, jack fish, trout, rabbits, beavers, seal, geese, meat and corn. Overall, the Subarctic Natives had a wide variety of food. | Berries were another ideal food for the Subarctic Natives | 6

7: Pemmican Ingredients : 5-10 lbs lean beef or bison round beef tallow rendered 1 lb dried blueberries 1 lb crushed walnuts red pepper seeds to flavor coarse salt, 1/4 cup/lb final mix Directions: Slice lean meat into thin strips, up to 1/4" thick, put on rack in oven to dry, with door open, or into bring sun on a warm day, check hourly to turn over, check dryness, if not dry it will bend if dry enough it will almost snap, this is very much like jerky. | Pemmican is one of the main foods eaten in the Subarctic. | 7

8: Weapons The Subarctic Natives used many different weapons. They used bows and arrows, traps, clubs, knives and spears. Bows were long pieces of wood with strings on the end. An arrow was a stick with an arrowhead made out of bone or stone; spears were made a similar fashion. Knives were made by sharpening stone. For hunting, they used dead falls, a drift fence and pound (traps). They also used nets to catch fish. Many used materials like wood, bone and stone although a small number had metal at their disposal. In conclusion, the Subarctic Natives used many weapons made from a variety of materials and styles. | 8

9: Bow and arrows was one weapon used by the Subarctic. | Spears were used when hunting. | 9

10: Clothing The Subarctic Natives had so many different types of clothing. They even had different clothes for different times of the day! Their clothing was mostly made out of soft tanned hide from all different types of animals. The way that the Subarctic Natives would make their clothing was by using the skin of local animals like squirrels, rabbits and deer. They would remove the hair by scraping the remains of the animal brains. They wore moccasins, leggings, shirts and coats in the summer, and they mostly wore long pants and coats in the winter. Now a days, a lot of girls and women wear leggings, moccasins, shirts and coats too, all inspired by the Subarctic Natives. | 10

11: This was the Nakaspi Coat. | 11

12: When the Subarctic Natives would sleep, they wore clothing called Slipcovers because they would protect themselves from bugs and the freezing cold. The most common fancy clothing was to wear leggings, moccasins and the famous Nakaspi Coat. The Nakaspi Coat is a famous coat that the Subarctic Natives wore and would show it off to their fellow people. The Nakaspi Coat was very expensive so that’s why they Subarctic Natives would show the coat off to their friends! Overall, the Subarctic Natives had a great sense of style! | 12

13: These were the Subarctic shoes. They are called Moccasins. | This is a slipcover. The Subarctics wore them when they went to sleep. | 13

14: Art Did you know that the most common hobby for the Subarctic Natives was art? They would mostly draw abstract, but they would also paint accessories and clothing. They would paint purses, jewelry, and clothing. They would also paint the famous Nakaspi Coat. | 14 | This is a sample of some of the art work

15: When the Subarctic Natives were stressed or upset, they would express their feelings through art! The Subarctic Natives most famous artist was Alex Janvier. The Subarctic Natives also had get togethers called Bonding Circles, that’s when the Subarctic Natives would show off their art. Art was a big part of their culture. | This is Alex Janvier, the most famous Subarctic artist. | 15

16: Social Structure The Subarctic Natives’ social structure was divided into semi-nomadic bands. Semi-nomadic band are groups of people that would sometimes move around, make decisions and trade together. People who had leadership were able to trade, declare war and hunt. | This is a picture of a band. Bands were very important to the Subarctic Natives | 16

17: It was mostly the adult men and woman who made decisions that affected the band and also important people made decisions. The different bands were in charge of different things. For example, some bands were in charge of protection and ceremonial obligations. Bands worked together to build caribou surrounds and large fish traps. To wrap it all up, the Subarctic Natives had a pretty structured social structure that worked very well for them. | 17

18: Special events and ceremonies The events and ceremonies were very important for the Subarctic Natives. The Subarctic Natives had so many different kinds of ceremonies like social gatherings, weddings, powwows, and game night. The two most important events were powwows and weddings. Weddings were very important. In order for the man to propose to the women, the man had to get permission from the women's parents. | 18

19: If the parents said yes, the man had permission to propose. At the wedding, the couple would get advice from the locals about relationships. Game night was also a big event to the Subarctic Native tribe. That's where they would play games and bond with each other. In some ways, the Subarctic Natives have similar events to us. | 19

20: Transportation The Subarctic Natives had transportation for every season. During their harsh winters they used snow shoes and toboggans. Snow shoes were wood frames laced with babiche (leather thongs). Some snow shoes were up to 2 meters long. Toboggans were made of either moose skin or wood. To make the curved end, the wood was steamed and bent into shape. Women and dogs pulled the toboggans. In the summer they used birch-bark canoes; they walked and used baby carriers. In conclusion, the Subarctic Natives perfectly adapted to their climate. | 20

21: A travois was used for transportation. | Birch-bark canoes were used in rivers. | 21

22: Beliefs The Subarctic Natives had a number of beliefs, but they all believed in animals. They thought of the animals as gods and they worshiped their spirits. They thought that the spirits of living things must be respected. They believed that children had to go on a vision quest to understand and respect the animals. Each boy or girl had to go alone into the forest to find a friend or protector in a form of an animal. Once they made a friend, they would bring back the power of that animal. | The spiritual world was a big part of the Subarctic culture. | 22

23: The Subarctic people did not use any form of writing. Each tribe had ceremonies when the men left on a long hunt. They had music and dancing. People believed that drums could reveal the trail to hunt. They believed that when someone died, the beat of the drums showed the spirit to heaven. If a person was bad and selfish, the spirit would be heavy and would have a hard time going to heaven. Dancing lightened your spirit so it could float up to heaven when it left the body. The sun was believed to give them direction, and they believed that the sun came to earth and it transformed things and made things good for the people. As you could see the spiritual world helped the Subarctic Natives find their way and live their life in a respectable way. | 23

24: Arrival Of The Europeans During the first meetings between the Europeans and the Natives, it was friendly. They traded and helped one another. The Europeans brought steel tools, blankets, guns, beads to decorate clothing faster. This was called the Fur Trade. The Subarctic Natives were living perfectly well until the Europeans came. Later, times became hard; many Natives fell ill and died because of diseases that the Europeans brought. They brought diseases for example smallpox and tuberculosis. They also brought new ideas to conflict. The Europeans didn’t believe in the Subarctic Natives beliefs and that the land that they owned should be sold by individual or bands. The Europeans disagreed how the land should be used and who could be there. The White people and the Natives did not understand each other. The Natives signed treaties that took away places that they lived in for years. In the end, the Europeans arrival and take over caused the Native culture to disappear. | 24

25: The Europeans and Natives traded furs and other goods to make life easier. | 25

26: Subarctic people today The Subarctic people today have adapted their lives to the modern times. Their jobs include guides, bush pilots, lumberjacks, miners, and forest fighters. Where they lived, the wilderness is turned into villages, and the land changed a lot. Today the Natives are angry and are saying that the treaties that were made are not fair because they were not properly understood. Many years ago they spoke the languages Algonquian, or Athapaskan but now they mostly speak English and French. As you can see, the Subarctic peoples' lives are very different from the past. | 26

27: This is a picture of a Subarctic family today. Some parts of their culture is preserved, while other parts are lost. | 27

28: Bibliography | Canada's native peoples. (n.d.). Retrieved Febuary 1, 2013, from Cass, J. (1983). Ochechak Indians of the Subartic. clark, e. (1983). indians of the subarctic. toronto, ontario, canada: health canada and the ROM. Four Directions Teaching. (2006). Retrieved Febuary 1, 2013, from Levi, J. (2010, January 21). Pemican Recipe. Retrieved January 25, 2013, from Native Tech: Ltd., G. P. (2007). Subarctic People. Retrieved January 22, 2013, from Canada's First Peoples: | 28

29: Koopmans, C. (2008). Subarctic Natives Art and Culture. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Weigel Education Publishers Limited. McNally, D. (2006). Fort Chipewyan Homecoming. Manitoba, Canada: Whiteside Publishers. N\A. (2008). Cree. calgary, alberta, canada: Weigl. Ridinton, R. a. (2003). People of the trail . Vancouver, Ontario: Douglas & McIntyre. silvey, d. (2005). the kids book of aboriginal peoples in canada. (v. watt, Ed.) toronto, ontairio, canada: kids can press. (2009, November 2). Indian popcorn. Retrieved January 25, 2013, from Native Tech: Stanford, Q. H. (1904- 2004). Canadian Oxford School Atlas. Oxford University Press. | 29

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