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The Cretaceous Period!

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BC: SPECIAL THANKS TOO: | I would like to thank Mrs. Dunn for letting/helping us do our project during her class time. I would like to thank Ms. Moore for answering all my questions when I was doing the project. I would like to thank Mrs. Damon and Ms. Sapp for correcting our papers and letting us know how our paper should be written. I would also like to thank my father, mother and sister for helping me design and write this project correctly. THANK YOU!

FC: The Cretaceous Period! By: Bilaal Siddiqui Teacher: Ms. Natalie Moore Subject: Science Date (Due): April 11, 2013 Section #: 7-2

1: My topic is on the Cretaceous Period! TABLE OF CONTENTS! Beginning: Page: Introduction Page 2 Time Page 4 Climate Page 6 Animals Page 8 Plants Page 10 Conclusion Page 12 Bibliography Page 14

2: INTRODUCTION: | The Cretaceous Period that can be said to have existed over 100 million years ago and often referred to as the end of the "Age of Dinosaurs" was perhaps one of the most impactful periods in the history of life on Earth. It was during this period that the first fossils of many insect groups, modern mammal and bird groups, and the first flowering plants are said to have appeared.


4: TIME: | The Cretaceous time period lasted from about sixty-five to 144 million years ago. The period BEFORE the Cretaceous period was the Jurassic period. The period AFTER the Cretaceous time period was the Cenozoic period. Even though the Cretaceous and Jurassic period were very similar, the Cretaceous played the key role in the period that came after it - the “Cenozoic" world.


6: CLIMATE: | During the beginning of the Cretaceous period, there was HUGE tectonic activity that caused the supercontinent Pangaea to rift apart and by the mid-Cretaceous split into several smaller continents. This created large-scale geographic isolation, causing a divergence in evolution of all land-based life for the two new land masses called Laurasia and Gondwana. The rifting apart also generated extensive new coastlines, and a corresponding increase in the available near-shore habitat and also caused the beginning of the period's climate to be VERY hot/warm like a desert. The period was warm because global sea levels were high and rising. However as the end of the period approached, the climate changed DRASTICALLY! Sea levels began to grow lower and volcanoes started erupting.


8: ANIMALS: | During this period there were also numerous animals that inhabited the Earth. But the one kind of species of animals that was in majority at that time was the DINOSAURS! There were several types of dinosaurs at that time like the Tyrannosaurus Rex, Triceratops, etc. Dinosaurs both great and small moved through forests of ferns, cycads, and conifers. Although there were a lot of dinosaurs, there were other animals in the Cretaceous time period such as gastropods and pelecypods (snails and clams), amphibians, lizards and snakes, crocodilians, and mammals too! Another significant existence during this time period was the MARINE life! A lot of creatures or pre-historic fish lived and roamed around in gigantic schools in the oceans and seas. By the end of the Cretaceous period, there was also AVIAN life! An interesting characteristic of Avian life was that these creatures soared and flew in the sky. Avian life consisted of birds and evolved dinosaurs called the flying pterosaurs.


10: PLANTS: | During the Cretaceous time period many flowering plants called the Angiosperms started to appear. Not only plants, forests were starting to evolve too. The angiosperms thrived in a variety of environments such as areas with damper climates, habitats favored by cycads and cycadeoids, and riparian zones. During this period severe climate changes started to take place, the winters become cooler and summers started becoming warmer. These changes in seasons affected the plant life in both good and bad ways. Climates supported plant life in a good way by forcing them to grow faster, multiply rapidly and become large. But sometimes the Climates were so harsh that they affected plant life in a bad way by killing and destroying them. Vegetation in general spread all over the world and helped much of the dinosaurs of the time to survive. In fact plant life was the main source of food for some dinosaurs, birds, etc. The dinosaurs that consumed plants were called "herbivores." It was very easy for the herbivores to get food, because vegetation was all around them. In the end though, a lot of plants died out after the – so called – asteroid hitting the Earth.


12: CONCLUSION: | At the end of the Cretaceous Period, 65 million years ago, it is believed that an asteroid hit the Earth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, forming what is today called the Chicxulub impact crater. It has been estimated that half of the world's species went extinct at about this time, but no accurate species count exists for all groups of organisms. Some have argued that mass extinction of dinosaurs also took place perhaps because of environmental changes occurring at this time. Whatever its cause, this extinction event marks the end of the Cretaceous Period and "Age of Dinosaurs."


14: BIBLIOGRAPHY: | The Cretaceous Period." UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontology. N.p., n.d. "Web. 10 Mar. 2013. . 4. "Cretaceous Period - ZoomDinosaurs.com." ENCHANTED LEARNING HOME PAGE. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013.

15: THE END!

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