S: The Eastern Woodland Natives!
FC: The Eastern Woodland Natives! | By:Hila,Vanessa, Ethan and Sean
1: Table of Contents Pg.1 Geographical Location Pg.2 Shelter Pg.3-4 Clothing Pg.5 Weapons Pg.6 Food Sources and Examples Pg.7-8 Legends Pg.9 Special Events Pg.10 Arrival of the Europeans Pg. 11 Social Structure Pg.12 Methods of Transportation Pg.13 Tools Pg.14-15 Recreation and Games Pg. 16 Art Pg. 17-18 Recreation and Games Pg.19 Religion Pg. 20-21 Today's Natives Pg. 22 Bibliography
3: The Eastern Woodlands lived in a large area that surrounded the great lakes. There were many tribes from southern Ontario to northern Ohio, New York and Pennsylvania. The land was mainly flat with a few mountains, uplands and valleys in the south and east. There were many rivers and streams. There were also many forests filled with wildlife. The summer was fairly long and hot. The temperature was usually 15-20 degrees, and there was around 40 centimeters of rain throughout the season. The Eastern Woodlands were very lucky with 1600-2000 hours of sunshine. During the winter, it was very cold, snow covered the ground, and all of the lakes froze to ice. Two hundred to three hundred centimeters of snow fell and the temperature was around -10. In the fall and spring, there was over 220 days with a temperature of 5 degrees. The thunderstorms in the woodland area lasted 10-20 days. Overall, the Eastern Woodlands had many great opportunities to farm, fish and have a fulfilled life! | GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION EASTERN WOODLANDS | These pictures show where the Eastern Woodland Native Tribes lived
4: Shelter of the Eastern Woodland Natives The Eastern Natives lived in two main shelters wigwams and longhouses. Wigwams are made from young trees and are bent to make the wigwam like an upside down basket.longhouses are rectangular shaped structures made with sap or young trees sewn together with bark. Saplings were lashed to the poles of longhouses to create the roof and exterior walls. A variety of trees were used depending on their flexibility, strength and resistance to decay. The exterior wall is made smooth so water can run off it. The family clan symbol is carved on the longhouse exterior to show whose house it belongs to. In the longhouse, food was hung from the rafters.That must be hard to reach! But instead of putting food on the shelves they put robes, clothing, and vases and more. In longhouses there is enough room for 18 families. Now that's a big house! Each family can live in 20 foot compartments. To keep warm, the families make a huge bonfire. It's a miracle the house doesn't burn! The Natives didn't have many house options, but their choices of which house to choose from were good. ones. | This is a picture of a longhouse | This is a picture of a wigwam
5: Clothing of Eastern Woodland Natives The Eastern Woodland Natives have many unique clothing and patterns to decorate their clothing. On every celebration and holiday they would wear special clothing. Women wore a short wrap-around skirt. On a daily basis men wore leggings, caps with feathers and quills. Eastern Woodland’s jewelry is really beautiful and is made out of all kinds of special things like bones, copper, hair, feathers, colorful stones and shells. Some other jewelry was made from items such as shells and teeth but later on, they used glass from European Traders. After, their art-styles changed and they began to use curved lines and flower like patterns which afterwards became popular. Their clothing is decorated with dyes, quills and moose hair. Other types of clothing were made from buckskin and different types of leather. Later on, they wore clothing they received from European Traders. The clothing worn next to their bodies was made from deer or beaver skin. Eastern Woodlands Natives also enjoyed decorating their bodies as well as their clothing. Men wore tattoos with various patterns such as animal patterns. These tattoos were made by prickling the awl and rubbing it into the charcoal then placing into the broken skin. Some were also decorated with colors like green, red and violet made from plants or ground up rocks. Eastern Woodland natives also put sunflower oil into their hair to make it look more pleasant for special events. As you can see, every piece of clothing that the Eastern Woodland Natives wore was unique, and were part of native culture.
6: This is a picture of one of the dresses that the Eastern Woodland Natives wore. | This is a picture of the leggings that men wore everyday.
7: Weapons of the Eastern Woodland Natives The Woodland Natives had a variety of weapons that included bows,arrows and snares. While bows and arrows were the most common weapon of the Natives, there were other weapons as well. Snares were used to catch small game such as rabbit, squirrel and raccoon. The Natives used nets. Arrows were made from chert, flint and sedimentary stone. When the stone is broken it leaves sharp edges. Arrows were shaped like isosceles triangles. The smaller ones were used to hunt small animals like birds, and the bigger ones were used to spear big animals like moose and bears. For fishing they used hooks, weir, listers and nets, all of which they made themselves using forest material. As you can see, the Eastern Woodland Natives had many different weapons that helped them to survive. | This is a picture of the stones used as weapons | This is a picture of the arrows that the Eastern Woodland Natives used
8: Food Sources and Examples of the Eastern Woodlands Natives The Eastern Woodland natives ate depending on the environment. They mostly ate edible plants and game they hunted. The Natives were skilled hunters and fishermen because they lived next to water and near the forests. How convenient! Their main food diet included bear, raccoon, seal, squirrel, whale, moose and their most valuable animal, the white tailed deer. The meat that they ate was very tasty. But their food also came from their farms. Their crops grew the three sisters, corn, bean and squash. While the men did the hunting, the women did the farming as a symbol of fertility. They also ate blueberries, wild tubers, barks, herbs and sunflower seeds. tobacco was used only for smoking. The very common maple syrup was harvested in March and April. Trial food was made from maple syrup, grease and cornmeal. As you can see, the natives had many different food sources with many different options! | This is a picture of an Eastern Woodland Native fishing | This is a picture of the Eastern Woodland Natives farming
9: Legends of the Eastern Woodland Natives | There were many legends about all kinds of things in the Iroquoian/Algonquian culture, but to list all of them in one day is impossible. All of these legends, whether they are Iroquoian, Algonquian, or any kind of natives, were passed down orally and none were written down. That is why almost all of the legends of the Natives have been twisted a little bit. One of the legends is of the Windigoes. Windigoes were evil and twisted spirits, according to Algonquian legends. According to this legend, Windigoes were people who were lost in the woods and resorted to cannibalism. When they got back, they were anti-social, extremely violent, and had the urge to eat human flesh, giving more power to the Windigoes. The only way to destroy this nasty spirit was to kill the Windigo and burn it, and then burn their ashes. Sadly, there are lots of other ways to become a Windigo! If a shaman (a leader who contacts spirits and heals natives regularly) curses you, you will become a Windigo, which can bite another person, and another person can become a Windigo from another Windigo’s bite. Also, be careful not to have nightmares about these things, because that is another way to become a Windigo! This is crazy! I sure don’t want to become a Windigo.
10: The common belief of origin through the Native peoples is that a young woman named Aientsik represented the earth. Her husband’s name was... a very long name, actually; Tharonhiawakon! In Iroquois this means, “ He who holds up the sky”, and Aientsik’s daughter represents the wind. To the natives, the earth is believed to once have been a turtles back. Also, all living things have a spirit. In Iroquois, Niagara means, “Thundering waters”. These are the most sacred waters to the natives, and are the focus of many legends, such as the one I am about to tell you. The natives thought that the roaring of the falls was actually the voice of the water spirits! Until the mid 1700s, the natives sought for the favour of the water spirits by sacrificing a fair maiden in a white canoe, decorated with fruits and flowers over the brink of the falls. Although the maidens would obviously die from this, they are exuberant to be sacrificed, because it was considered the greatest honour. It also insured special gifts and good hunting grounds in the afterlife. Some of these legends are just crazy, don't you think? | This is a picture of Windigo
11: Special Events of the Eastern Woodland Natives There are lots of special events in the Eastern Woodland culture. One of these is tobacco ceremonies. The pipe used for smoking was called a calumet and had wooden stems decorated with animal hair/feathers. Smoking pipes was sacred to the Natives, and had to be treated with respect. It was used according to proper rituals. This could also be an offering to the spirits. Even sometimes, tobacco burned as incense/tossed onto fire as a person called on a spirit for help! Shamans sometimes used smoke to drive disease from a sick person’s body. Also, chiefs and councillors smoked before making important decisions, such as trading and declaring war/agreeing to peace. They passed the pipe around for each person to smoke as a sign of agreement/peace. The tobacco Native American plant (used for smoking) was unknown to the rest of the world until Natives introduced it to new settlers! The Natives grew it for themselves and to trade with other groups. The tobacco used then had a milder taste than modern tobacco. Because of this, it was sometimes mixed with other leaves such as sumac. Also, there were six annual ceremonies which lasted several days each. Four out of these six ceremonies were based around corn! The ceremonies were: 1. New Year Festival 2. Maple Festival 3. Corn Planting Festival 4. Strawberry Festival 5. Green Corn Festival and the 6. Harvest Festival of Thanksgiving! Some of these Special Events looked fun! | This is a picture of a tobacco pipe
12: Arrival of the Europeans TheNatives (in our opinion) were doing fine on their own. In the 1500s, the Europeans came and changed their society forever! In the 1600s, the Europeans brought tools and other goods to trade with the Natives for beaver furs, which at the time were very popular in Europe. While spending time with the Natives, the Europeans managed to convert some of the Natives to Christianity! Even though they made trades with Natives, most of them were not fair. An example of this is if a Native gives European 5 acres of land, and a Native returns a bead! They cheated them out of resources, land, food and much more! They also gave the Natives diseases. Although all of this is true, they introduced the Natives to innovations from Europe! The arrival of the Europeans was in some ways good, and in some ways bad. Most of all, it was life changing! | This is a picture of the Europeans meeting with the Eastern Woodland Natives
13: Social Structure of the Eastern Woodland Natives The social structure of the Eastern Woodland Natives differs, especially between the Iroquois and the Algonquians. An example of this is that there are no major confederacies amongst the Algonquians, unlike the Iroquois,who were known for them. If the Algonquians formed confederacies, they were not as tightly bound as with the Iroquois. The largest political unit was called a ,“Vllage-band.” Groups of related families (containing several hundred people) would come together to share resources. Each village-band would have at least one Chief/Headsman appointed along hereditary lines. Algonquians can also be broken down into ,“Clans.” Clans traced back along patrimonial lines (traced from a common male ancestor) and had animal names designated by animal totems, unlike Iroquoians who trace back property/ancestry through female lineage. The social structure of the Natives sure was complicated! | This is a picture of one of the Chiefs
14: Methods of Transportation of the Eastern Woodland Natives For the Eastern Woodland Natives they had two main methods of transportation, including snowshoes and canoes. Snowshoes were for the clan members to walk swiftly on the snow. Snowshoes are bent and laced with animal sinew (the fibers of an animals tendon). The hunters were able to walk in two or three feet of snow to catch moose or deer floundering in the snow. Canoes were made from elm bark of common wood or birch bark (a lighter and faster wood). The bendable bark was then placed over a frame, sewn together using a large bone needle and basswood or dogbane cord (thin strips of inner cedar bark or black spruce roots) as thread. After, the canoe was painted with pine gum to make it watertight. Canoes and snowshoes are an excellent form of transportation, and are still used today. | This is a picture of the Eastern Woodland Natives in a canoe | This is a picture of the snowshoes that that Eastern Woodland Natives wore
15: Tools of the Eastern Woodland Natives Eastern Woodland Natives used tools in a variety of ways. Most of the tools that they used were created from wood or bark. When they cooked, they put the food in containers made from wood and bark mainly from birch trees. There are two common tools that they used; stone axes and knifes. Stone axes are used to strip bark, clear fields and remove fat from hides. When they found stones, they would carve them into the proper shapes using harder hammer stones. These hammer stones are ground and polished using a sandstone slab fitted with a handle. This process takes many hours; therefore, once a tool was made it was not borrowed friends and relatives. On the other hand, there was a certain kind of knife called flint knifes which are often oval or teardrop shaped. They are pointed on both ends in order to be fitted with a handle. As you can see, the Eastern Woodlands Natives had to work hard to make and craft their own tools in order to have things to eat, and work with. | This is a picture of a stone axe | This is a picture of a flint knife
16: Recreation and Games of the Eastern Woodland Natives The Eastern Woodland Natives were involved in many traditional games that we still play today! Have you heard of “Jackstraws” or today know as, “Pick-up-sticks?” That was one of the games that the Eastern Woodland Natives invented! Racing was also one of the popular games played by men. Women would play lacrosse which is very similar to field hockey. A very popular game played by the Eastern Woodland Natives was called, “Hubbub.” Hubbub was a game played by men and women and involves two players or a number of people divided into two sides. The Natives used two sided dice shaped as turtles. One side of the dice was a star and one was an “x”. Every time the dice landed on a star, the player or team would receive a stick. Every time the dice landed on an, “x” the player or team wouldn't receive anything. Usually, they played with fifty sticks, after the sticks were finished whoever had the most sticks wins. Another popular game was “Butterfly Hide and Seek.” Butterfly Hide and Seek was a quiet game played among the children. Children were taught never to hurt butterflies and if they landed on you then it was good luck! The game was very simple, but yet very popular. One girl would cover her eyes and sang the butterfly song. All the other girls playing would quickly and quietly hide. The singer had to then find the girls without saying a word. This game was very similar to “Hide and Seek” and spread through all of the tribes. The Eastern Woodland Natives loved to have fun, and played some of the games that we still play today.
17: This is a picture of the sticks and stones used in the game "Hubbub". | This is a picture of the racket used in the game lacrosse.
18: Ojibwa Art of the Eastern Woodlands Ojibwa natives have many interesting and different styles. For Ojibwa, art was used in everyday life. All kinds of bags, baskets and clothing were decorated by women with porcupine quills. Porcupine quills were used in many different ways such as when woven, braided, wrapped around wooden handles and pipe stems and threaded to make jewelry and belts. The quills were taken from the porcupine, organized by size and then dyed afterwards. Ojibwa women know how to make dye of all sorts of colors such as blue, green, red and black from local plants. All different kinds of mats and bags are made of strips of bark in different patterns by the craft people. Men are talented wood carvers. They created bowls, spoons and other items. Other items were often decorated with engraved figures. After, ceremonial items, tools and clothing were finally crafted. As you can see, the Ojibwa Natives were very different and they had many creative and interesting styles. | This is a picture of one of the patterns that the Eastern Woodland Natives designed. | This is a picture of a bowl made out of porcupine quills.
19: Famous People- Ely Samuel Parker and Tecumseh Throughout all of the Eastern Woodland Tribes, there were many people that achieved things that changed the tribes. One of them was named Ely Samuel Parker, who was born in 1828 and died in 1895. Ely became a sachem of his tribe at the age of 23. He studied law and became an attorney, engineer and a tribal diplomat. During the civil war, Ely wanted to join the army, but he didn't get accepted in because he was Indian. General Grant, Ely’s good friend managed to get Parker a spot as a military secretary on Grants staff. When General Grant was promoted to command all U.S forces, Ely was one of the few people who was chose to go east with General Grant. Grant introduced Ely to Robert E. Lee at the Appomattox Courthouse, where Ely was chosen to write several documents about the army. After that, Ely was appointed to become commissioner or Indian affairs. He was one of the first Natives that had an important role in society. Another famous Eastern Woodland Native was Tecumseh. Tecumseh was a war chief and leader of the Shawnee tribe. Tecumseh had a dream wanted to unite all of the Native tribes to make one Native nation. Tecumseh became close friends with Sir Isaac Brock who was the leader of the British army. In 1812, Tecumseh and Sir Isaac Brock joined forces to make one big army and captured Detroit together. Tecumseh wanted to capture as many country's as he could, so he could bring all of the tribes together to make one big Native Nation. Except on October 5, 1813, the Americans wanted revenge and attacked British and Native Americans at the Battle of the Thames. During the battle, Tecumseh was killed and his tribe surrendered to the Americans in Detroit. Tecumseh's legacy will never be forgotten, there is a Tecumseh stone, Shawnee coin with his picture and even a plaque in Chatham, Ontario.
20: Famous People- Bill Miller Last but not least was Bill Miller. Bill Miller was a famous Native musician; his band has played with Pearl Jam and has toured with Tori Amos! Bill began playing the guitar and flute as early as twelve years old! In 1984, Bill moved to Nashville and opened for many artists and bands such as Under the Pink. Bill Millers songs were very spiritual and he became an instant success. In 2005, Bill won a Grammy for “Best Native American Music Album.” Bill has collaborated with other successful Native American musicians such as Robert Mirabal, Carlos Nakai, and Joanne Shenandoah. Bill Miller was not only a musician, but also an artist! His paintings have appeared on many CD covers. Bill Miller is still living today and continues to play the flute, write songs and paint pictures for his fans. | This is a picture of Bill Miller.
21: This is a picture of Tecumseh. | This is a picture of Ely Samuel Parker.
22: Religion and Customs of the Eastern Woodland Natives The Algonquians have many beliefs and beautiful customs. The Algonquians are also very superstitious because they believe that everything has a spirit. Every animal that was killed had a spirit in them. One of the spirits that the Algonquians believed in was the evil spirit of Windigo. Windigo caused many troubles for humans. On the other hand, they also had a lot of love and respect for mother earth. Mother earth took care of the Algonquians. This is why they believed that nobody owned mother earth. Mother earth let them use her gifts, but only if they treated them with respect. Shamans were people that gave medicine form herbs and different natural medicine as well as their praise to spirits. Older boys start their spiritual quest and stay there without eating for several days. On this vision quest, they find animal spirits that afterwards became very important to them and guide him for the rest of his life. Some Algonquians also believe that the number four is an important number because it represents how the world was built; four directions, four seasons, four orders in nature; earth, plants, animals, and humans. To me, I think that Algonquin people are very interesting and had many beliefs that are not like the beliefs of other people. | This is a picture of the herbs that the Shamans used in order to make medicine. | This is a drawing of Mother earth.
23: Today's Natives of the Eastern Woodland Natives Believe it or not, there are still many Eastern Woodland Natives scattered throughout the world. They are scattered all over cities, the Eastern Woodlands still have many reservations, especially from Minnesota to Pennsylvania. These reserves still practice their religion and some even have meetings every year to plan the future, like the Iroquois League. Most of the reserves still have good soil for farming, but some are muddy and swampy. The Ojibwa tribe still has its reserve on the north shore of Lake Superior. Their reserve is very large, swampy and rocky. One of their main attractions is the National Park that attracts lots of tourists. The population of the Ojibwa reserve is 400 people. That's not all of the Natives though, there are 30,000 Natives in Toronto. We even have a Native Canadian Center to help teach students about their past. The Native people might sound like they have a perfect life, but they are faced with many problems. Ottawa does not support their education, most reserves don't even have elementary schools and there is no health care available for Natives. The Natives were even forced out of their homes! The reason why Aboriginal peoples were forced to move out of their homes was because the European and British settlers wanted to take their traditional culture away and make the Natives just like them. They created residential schools to teach Aboriginal peoples not to follow their traditional culture and lifestyle. In order to understand why Aboriginal peoples are affected we have to understand their history.
24: This is a picture of the Eastern Woodland Natives practicing their culture. | This is a picture of one of the reserves of the Eastern Woodland Natives. | Overtime, the Canadian federal government never supported the Aboriginal peoples as they promised to provide support and funding for education and health care, but never did. The Aboriginal peoples depend on the governments funding, because of the governments broken promises,the Aboriginal peoples were left with housing shortages, no education and no health care. The Aboriginal peoples have large amounts of land and resources and the Canadian federal government wants to take control and power over those resources. As a consequence, the Aboriginal peoples are suffering from the governments actions.
25: Bibliography 1) Cass James. Ekahotan. Toronto, D.C Health Canada Limited 1983 2) Cruxton, Bradley. First Peoples and First Contacts. Don Mills, Oxford University Press 2000 3)"Eastern Woodlands." Eco Kids. Earth Day Canada, 1991. Web. 19 Mar. 2012.