S: The History of Ancient Egypt
BC: Edited by Vincent Tozzi November 2011
FC: The History of Ancient Egypt
1: Vincent Tozzi | Eoin Tunney | Ralphael Ventra | and Maxwell Wilkins | By | The History of Ancient Egypt | Published By Xavier High School | Copyright © V.Tozzi, E.Tunney, R.Ventra & M.Wilkins 2011 New York, NY
2: The Rosetta Stone Commemorates the Ascension to the throne of Pharaoh Ptolemy V After the death of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV Philopator, his young five-year old son, Ptolemy V Epiphanes will take over as the next regent of Egypt. As Ptolemy V was passed from the control of one adviser to another, he finally took control of the throne. Sosibius and Agathocles, two of Ptolemy IV’s most powerful ministers had Arsinoe III, the wife of Ptolemy IV murdered so they could take the throne. It had been reported that under his rule, he will ease the taxes his soldiers pay. Some he will cut off and others he will lighten their burden. It was said that corn and money will be the revenue that is assigned to the gods land. Priest will not pay for admission into priest hood. In addition Ptolemy will forgive all the prisoners that are in prison and ordered them all released. By laying out great sums of money and corn to those who are in the land might be in safety. In commemoration of this great and wonderful event, the great pharaoh has ordered that the events outlined here be scribed into a stone. The events will be scribed in three languages so that it will transcend well into the future, and people will always remember the good that Ptolemy V has bestowed upon his kingdom.
3: The Discovery of the Rosetta Stone On July 2, 1798 Napoleon's troops occupied Alexandria. Soon after, on July 24th, Napoleon arrived and he began to organize scholars. By August 22nd, Napoleon established the Institute of Egypt. There have been many improvements made in Alexandria, Cairo, Damietta and Rosetta. Hospitals were built, and diseases were studied as well as sanitary regulations implemented. Napoleon Bonaparte had streetlights installed, and he instilled a new policy for taxation. He also ordered that the great monuments be studied, and with that the science of Egyptology was founded. It is believed that the most notable and the most important discovery was the finding of the Rosetta Stone. In a small town near Alexandria, a block of basalt stone was found while French Soldiers were in the process of demolishing a wall to expand Fort Julien. The Captain of Engineers, Pierre Francois Xavier Bouchard, who headed the demolition team, discovered the stone. The original reports made stated that the stone was found just lying on the ground. It has now been verified that those original reports were untrue. In an interview with Bouchard, he outlined that when he ordered the wall to be taken down, he saw something unusual, and halted the demolition to take a closer look at the stone. When it was revealed that there was writing on the stone, he then ordered that the stone be carefully removed and brought to the Institute for further studies.
4: Travel Section Egypt is home to some of the most complex architectural structures in the world. Whenever you visit it you feel like you have been transported back in time. As a travel writer I have traveled to many marvelous places around the world but nothing compares to Egypt. Egypt is located in the Northeastern corner of Africa, and is one of Africa's earliest civilizations. It is one of the longest lasting civilizations known to man. | The Great Pyramids of Giza These Pyramids are located southwest of modern-day Cairo near what was one known as the ancient city of Memphis. These pyramids were built for the pharaohs: Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. These pharaohs ruled in the Fourth Dynasty. The constructions of the pyramids took several decades and were built by human power. The stones were so perfectly fitted not even a knife can fit in between the rocks. Khufu's pyramid, which is the largest, covers 13 acres and 481 feet tall and consists of 2.3 million limestone bricks. It was the tallest structure in the world until the Eiffel Tower was built in Paris in 1889. Khufu's pyramid is one of the seven wonders of the Ancient world. The Ancient Egyptians believed that the pharaohs were both human and divine so these pyramids were built to preserve their bodies for the afterlife. The process of preserving the body was called mummification. These pyramids are a wonderful attraction which draws millions of people each year. The pyramids are so perfectly built that it is hard to believe that they were built by hand.
5: Temples of Karnak and Luxor The Temples of Karnak and Luxor are located east of the Nile River. These temples were built during the New Kingdom (c.1570-1090 B.C.E) by the pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Luxor is the modern day name for Thebes which was the capital of Egypt in ancient times. It is best known for the great temple of Amun built by Amenhotep III, which was then added on to by Pharaoh Ramses II. Ramses II introduced the obelisk in Luxor. An obelisk is a four sided stone pillar that is usually about one hundred feet tall. These structures are usually built for the sun gods. Obelisks are very famous and can be seen around the world. Some obelisks are: Cleopatra's Needle in Central park, New York and London, and the Washington Monument. The Temple of Karnak is the largest Egyptian temple ever built; it stands inside an enclosed wall that surrounds 16,000 square meters (172,222 square feet). The Temple of Karnak started being built in the Twelfth dynasty, and was added onto by the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasties. The temple is known as Amun’s home. One of the most important buildings in it is the “Festival Hall of Thutmose III.” Four huge statues of Thutmose III dressed, and posed as the god Osiris lay at the entrance of the building.
6: Temple of Abu Simbel and Dendera Abu Simbel is located on the west bank of the Nile River in the southern Egyptian region of Nubia. Ramses II was the 3rd ruler during the 19th dynasty. On his command he had two temples carved into a sandstone cliff to celebrate his 30 years of power. Ramses II also built four massive statues of himself and they stand at more than 65 feet tall. The walls in the temples were carved with stories of war and hard battle fought. Abu Simbel is a holy ground, with shrines dedicated to the local gods Horus and Hathor. In the 1960s, the temples of Abu Simbel was moved to prevent their submersion as a result the construction of the Aswan High Dam. The Temple of Dendera can be found on the West Bank of the Nile River, opposite the modern day town of Qena. This temple was built in roman times and dedicated to the goddess Hathor, also known as the goddess of healing. It is a very interesting temple as it is decorated inside with artwork of Roman emperors beside Egyptian gods. The ceilings have artwork of the gods representing the signs of the zodiac. The main hall has carvings that show temple offering and tell mythological stories. A trip to Egypt is a one in a lifetime experience. If you have a love of history, Egypt will open your mind to a whole new perspective of history. All structures are so large and magnificent that they make you feel as if you are the smallest thing on Earth. The architecture of all these structures is so unbelievable, that you wouldn't believe that all of this was mostly built by hand. I hope my information on these sites will inspire you to visit Egypt, as it really is a mind blowing experience.
8: Obituaries Queen Cleopatra VII Queen Cleopatra was born in 69 B.C.E. and her reign lasted from 51 B.C.E. to 47 B.C.E. This was during the Hellenistic period of time in Egypt. Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which was a Greek family of rulers. She refused to start speaking Egyptian and kept speaking Greek, which is the reason why both languages were used in official court documents. She married Julius Caesar and had a boy named Caesarian. Julius was murdered in 44 B.C.E during a trip to Rome in which Cleopatra went along. She returned to Egypt and married Marc Antony. They had two twins. Together, they fought the Battle of Actium against the Octavian Army. They were defeated and Antony killed himself. She then followed by killing herself by a snake bite. Their bodies were buried next to each other soon after. Caesarian became Pharaoh but was soon killed by the Octavian forces. Egypt was put under Roman rule and became the Roman province of Aegyptus. William Shakespeare wrote a play about Cleopatra titled “Antony and Cleopatra.” Even today Cleopatra is recognized in western culture whether it is art or the story of her life in literature. She is often considered a symbol of beauty. She is remembered by the Romans as a dangerous public enemy. Family wise, Cleopatra had a mother but her identity is unknown. Her mother is believed to be the sister and wife of Ptolemy XII. Cleopatra was his daughter and when he died when her reign began.
9: Funeral Customs Mummification Upon death, the Egyptians’ souls went through a series of trials and test to be accepted into the underworld with Osiris. This was called the “Final Judgment” and was witnessed by Osiris and forty-two other gods. The journeying soul was weighed against the feather of maat, which represented truth, justice, purity, and goodness. If the soul were lighter than the feather of maat, then it would join Osiris in the afterlife and enjoy all the things that it did during its life. If the journeying soul was heavier than the feather of maat, then Sobek ate the soul.
10: To mummify the Cleopatra VII, countless steps were required to complete the task. First, the Ancient Egyptians removed the brain through the nose using a metal hook. The brain was then discarded. Next, the internal organs were removed through an incision made in the left side of the body. The organs were placed in jars and embalmed separately.
11: After that, the body went through a number of processes before it was completed. The body was painted with natron, a salt based substance to remove all liquid. It was then stuffed with natron soaked rags to draw out the remaining fluids. This usually took about forty days. The body was then re-stuffed with myrrh, cassia, and other fine jewels. The nostrils were plugged with beeswax and gold rings were placed on each finger and toe. When the body was finally wrapped, it was wrapped with fine linen cloth twenty layers, and if the mummy was a noble person or lived a just life, jewels were often placed between the layers of the cloth. If an average Egyptian were mummified, there would be less valuables and less care put into the mummification of the deceased Egyptian
12: Works Cited Hieroglyphics Translater. Title page hieroglyphics . 2011
13: NOVA. Explore Ancient Egypt. 1996. WGBH. 2011