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The Study of Cells

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1: PAGE: 1. Contributions of Four Scientist 2. Contributions of Four Scientist 3. Prokaryotic v.s Eukaryotic Cells 4. Prokaryotic v.s Eukaryotic Cells 5. Plant v.s Animal Cells 6. Plant v.s Animal Cells 7. Ten Cell Structures 8. Ten Cell STructures 9. Cell Theory 10. Cell Membrane 11. Homeostasis 12. Homeostasis | TABLE OF CONTENTS

2: Robert Hooke was an English physicist who observed cork cells through a microscope. He was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight on July 18, 1635, and died in London on March 3, 1703, at the age of 68. Robert Hooke wrote Micrographia, the first book describing observations made through a microscope. Hooke was the first person to use the word "cell" to identify microscopic structures when he was describing cork. Hooke also wrote Hooke's Law -- a law of elasticity for solid bodies. | Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist who published "Microscopic Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Plants and Animals," which included the first statement of the cell theory: All living things are made up of cells. He was born in Rhenish Prussia, Gemany on December 7, 1810, and died in Cologne, Germany on January 11, 1882, at the age of 71. | Robert Hooke | Theodor Schwann

3: Rudolf Virchow was the first scientist to summarize the work of Schleiden and Schwann by proposing that all living cells must rise from pre-existing cells. He was born in Swidwin, Poland on October 13, 1821, and died in Berlin, Germany on September 5, 1902, at the age of 82. | Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist who was the first person recognize that all plants and there parts are composed of cells. He was born in on April 5, 1804, and died in on June 23, 1881, at the age of 77. | Matthias Jakob Schleiden | Rudolf Virchow

4: Prokaryotic Cells | A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and defined internal compartments. The inside of a prokaryote is not separated therefore it cannot carry out many specialized functions. Examples of prokaryotes are a subset of the type of cell commonly referred to as bacteria. Prokaryotes are the simple and smallest cells. | V

5: Eukaryotic Cells | A eukaryotic cell create all the life kingdoms but monera and are easily distinguished by their membrane-bound nucleus. They also contain organelles with unique functions that carry out the needs of the cell and distinguish the acts it can preform. Eukaryotes can form together into multi-celled organisms. | S.

6: A plant cell is almost the same as an animal cell except for few differences. Although an animal cell has a vacuole, it isn't as large as the plant cells vacuole. In fact in a mature plant cell, up to 90% of its volume will be taken up by the vacuole. Then theirs the chloroplast which give the plant its color. (green) It also carries chlorophyll which is responsible for absorbing sun light to produce photosynthesis. Plant cells also have a cell wall, which is used as structure and support (especially when there is high turgor pressure) but also as a pressure vessel preventing over-expansion of water. | PLANT CELL | V

7: Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike prokaryotic cells, DNA in animal cells is housed within the nucleus. In addition to having a nucleus, animal cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles, or tiny cellular structures, that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for animal cells | ANIMAL CELL | S.

8: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The main function is to serve as a transportation vesicles that transports ER products. This looks like coral or connected tubes. | Ribosomes The main function is to serve as the site of protein manufacture. The ribosomes look like dots scattered around the cell. | Golgi apparatus The main function is to serve as the packaging and distribution center of the cell. The golgi apparatus looks like a smooth ribbon layers.. | Mitochondria The main function is to produce energy. This is also known as the "Power House" of the cell. The mitochondria is smooth on the outside but is rigged on the inside. | Nucleus This is to maintain the genes and to control the activites of the cell by gene expression. The nucleus looks like a sphere.

9: Lysosomes The main function is to break down waste materials and cellular debris. This looks like a tiny sphere. | Cell Membrane The main function is to protect the cell from the outside world. This looks like a layer around the cell. | Microtubules The main function is for transportation of information from the nucleus to different parts of the cell. The microtubules look like skinny cylinders. | Nucleolus The main function is to produce ribosomes. The nucleolus looks like sphere within the nucleus. | Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The main function is to make the protein and lipids components of the cell organelles. This looks like rigged ribbon layers.

10: The Three Principles of Cell Theory | 3) Cells come only from other cells. | 2) Cells are the basic units of life. | 1) All living things are made of cells.

11: The cell membrane is mostly made up of compounds called proteins and phospholipids. The phospholipids make the basic membrane, and the proteins are found around the pores and help move molecules in and out of the cell. The fundamental structure of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments. | Cell Membrane

12: Homeostasis | Homeostasis is a state in which everything within the cell is in equilibrium and functioning properly. The state of homeostasis keeps the cell constant with what it needs to function. This means that in homeostasis, the waste is being transported away from the cell while it receives the nutrients it needs to continue to function. Homeostasis keeps the cell stable. When cells are in homeostasis, they work to help the organism function properly. It is important for cells to maintain homeostasis for the organism to remain healthy. | Definition-1. the tendency of a system, especially the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus that would tend to disturb its normal condition or function. 2. a state of psychological equilibrium obtained when tension or a drive has been reduced or eliminated.

13: This plant is a good example of homeostasis because it shows that all cells are functioning properly and that the plant is healthy and stable. | This picture would not be under the term of homeostasis because the plant is wilting (dead) and unstable. Showing that the cells were not functioning properly.

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