S: To Kill a Mockingbird Project
BC: The End
FC: emily wilkins
1: Setting....................................................................................................................2 Scottsboro Boys Connection................................................4 Emmett Till..................................................................................................6 Point of View..............................................................................................8 Atticus's POV.........................................................................................10 Conflict..............................................................................................................12 Characterization...............................................................................16 Symbols..........................................................................................................20 Theme.................................................................................................................22 Feminist..........................................................................................................28 New Historicism................................................................................32 Psychoanalytical.............................................................................36 | Table of Contents
2: Setting | "Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired own when I first knew it.," (Lee, 6). | This quote helps me to envision an old, settled, maybe even slightly run down town. | "Mrs. Dubose's house two doors to the north of us, and the Radley place three doors to the south," (Lee, 7). | This quote from the book makes me think that the town of Maycomb is a very close community and all of the houses are in nice, neat neighborhoods.
3: "A day was longer than twenty-four hours. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County," (Lee, 10). | This quote from To Kill a Mockingbird leads me to think that the story takes place during The Great Depression because the people in the town have no money to spend on anything. The town also seems relatively small because no one wants to go outside the boundaries of the county. | Understanding the context of the setting is important because a character in a story will face different problems depending upon where they reside. Understanding that the story takes place in the south in the 1930's helps justify all of the prejudice that the towns people express throughout the story.
4: Real Life Connections: The Scottsboro Boys and To Kill a Mockingbird | In 1931, nine African American teenage boys were convicted of raping two white girls. Before the case left court, it included a frameup, a jury of all white men, attempted lynching, and an angry mob. After the first trial, the boys - except for one who was too young - were sentenced to death. However, the case was appealed. After many retrials, the charges were dropped against four of the nine boys. Sentences for the rest were from 75 years in prison, to the death sentence.
5: There are many similarities between the Scottsboro Boys Trials and the Tom Robinson case in To Kill a Mockingbird. In the book, Tom, a black man, is accused of raping a white woman. This accusation was made up by the girls father, who abuses her and her siblings in their home. However, the jury does not believe that Tom is innocent, so he is sentenced to death just like the Scottsboro boys. The book also includes an attempted lynching and an angry mob. Another similarity between the two cases is how they ended. The boys' case was appealed, and Tom's was supposed to be, as well. However, Tom was killed when he tried to escape from prison, just like one of the Scottsboro boys.
6: The Story of Emmett Till | The author of To Kill a Mockingbird did not only draw her inspiration from the story from the Scottsboro Boys Trial. She also researched the story of Emmett Till. A teenage colored boy from Chicago and his journey into Mississippi. The young boy stopped in the town of Money to get snack. Though the facts are not clear, it is said that Emmett grabbed the arm of Caroline Bryant, a white woman, and said, "Thanks, baby." before he left. Word spread of what had happened, the girls father and several other men went searching for Till. They found him early in the next morning, around 3 am. The men abducted him from the home he was sleeping in and drove him around. The men beat him severely and eventually shot him. They decided to throw his body into the river, with a fan for weight. His body was discovered a few days later.
8: Point of View | To Kill a Mockingbird is told in firs person point of view. ""Night," I murmured," (Lee, 185). The Narrator of this story is Scout. She is a 6-8 year old girl who is shows more qualities of a young man than a young woman. | Harper Lee chose to tell this story from the perspective of a young girl instead of from Jem's or Atticus's because she wanted to capture the destruction of innocence that Scout goes through as she learns the truth about the Tom Robinson trial and the threat that her family faces after wards. Lee also uses the POV as a tool to show us how much Scout grows and learns throughout the story.
9: Atticus's POV | There was an eerie silence in the air; the sound of the judge’s gavel hitting the desk stung my ears as it brought order to the courtroom. I had been dreading this day since I was assigned Tom’s case. Everyone in the room knew that this trial held no purpose. No matter how strong my case was against the Ewell’s, Tom would be a dead man by the end of the day. No man of color could ever walk away with a not guilty verdict after being accused of raping a white woman. It was just not possible. This thought made me sick to my stomach. As I watched the Sheriff of Maycomb County, Heck Tate, take the stand, my mind flashed back to the night he and the mob came for me at the jail. There were so many familiar faces in the crowd, people that I knew well and thought highly of. I could not believe that these men would be so easily fooled. All ready to kill an innocent man. I turned around, my eyes scanned the courtroom crammed tight with what looked to be the entire town of Maycomb, whites on the floor and colored on the balcony above. The whites seemed to hang onto every word that came out of Tate’s mouth. The colored fidgeted in their seats, hoping to see the day end decent for Tom.
10: I turned back around in my seat and focused my attention on Tate’s testimony. Tate was a man that I knew well. He was a good man with a responsible head on his shoulders. I knew that, regardless of the way he was brought up, he was not as prejudice as the others in the room. However, I also knew that Tate was not entirely convinced of Tom’s innocence. My arms felt heavy, like lead weights when I reached up to the table to adjust my papers. It was almost our turn. I wasn’t fully sure how I was going to pull this off, but I did know that I would give it everything I had. I would not let an innocent man be convicted of a crime he did not commit. I refused to let that happen. My eyes followed Tate as he made his way off the stand and back to his seat. I stood up slowly, fixing my suit jacket and clearing my throat. Here I go.
12: Conflicts | Atticus VS. Himself | In the book, Atticus is faced with a problem with the Tom Robinson trial. He knows that Tom is not guilty of the crime that he is being accused of, however, he knows that if he takes on the case, then his entire family will face abuse from the other people in town. | Before Atticus makes up his mind on what to do with the case, Atticus heavily weighs his options. He knows that if he doesn't take on the case, then he will not be able to hold up his head in town. After the case, even though he lost, he knows that what he did was the right thing, and that he can appeal the case in an attempt to save Tom from death. | man vs. self
13: Scout VS Miss Caroline | During the story, Scout starts school. She is a bit more advanced than the other kids in her class. Scout knows how to read and write well, and Miss Caroline, her teacher, does not like that. She tells Scout that she is no longer allowed to read and write at home, because its her job to teach the kids how to do that, they should not already know. | After the conflict with her teacher, Scout goes home to talk to her father. She tells him that they are no longer able to read together. Atticus is able to sense her unhappiness and comes up with a solution. He decides that he will read to Scout instead of letting her read herself. | man vs. man
14: Tom VS Mayella | In the book, Tom Robinson is accused of rape by Bob Ewell and his daughter Mayella. He is put on trial for his 'crime,' even though he is really innocent, and ends up receiving the death sentence from an all white jury. | man vs. man | After this conflict, things really go downhill for Tom. He is put into jail in a different city. His family is not allowed to see him. Although Atticus was working on getting the case appealed, Tom tries to escape from the prison. If he had two good arms instead of one, he would've made it. But he didn't, and was shot and killed in the act.
16: Characterization | Dynamic | Scout - Scout is a young girl, around the age of 7. She is smart for her age. Scout is more interested in boyish activities than being a proper lady. She is curious and craves knowledge. Scout is a dynamic character because she changed throughout the book. In the beginning, she is kind of ignorant in the face of prejudice, but as the story evolves, she becomes more aware of it when her father decides to defend an innocent colored man in court.
17: Jem - Jem is a pre-teen boy who is very smart. He leads Scout and helps her understand things that she is not able to comprehend herself. He is adventurous and brave. Jem is a dynamic character because he also changes throughout the story. In the beginning, he is an excitable young man who loves to play outside with his sister. Jem goes on backyard adventures with Scout. As the story advances, he starts to go through things all teens go through. His voice gets deeper and he becomes interested in other things, not just playing with his sister. He still helps her when she needs him, but for the most part, he is not that same companion she had before.
18: Characterization | Static | Atticus - Atticus is a grown man. He has a good, honest head on his shoulders and he fights for what is right. He is a lawyer in the town of Maycomb and is a father to Jem and Scout. Atticus is a static character because he does not change during the story. Atticus knew what to expect during the Tom Robinson trial, so nothing really shocked or changed him. He has the same beliefs and morals in the end of the book that he did in the beginning.
19: Dill - Dill is a young boy, around the same age as Scout. He shares a lot of qualities with Jem. He is adventurous and brave, and he liked a challenge. Dill is very outgoing and has a crush on Scout. Dill is a static character because he does not change throughout the story. When we first meet Dill, he is all about adventure and taking risks. We never really get to see Dill change, he is always outgoing and -thrill-seeking.
20: S y m b o l s | The significance of the title To Kill a Mockingbird symbolizes the death of innocence. In the book, we learn that a mockingbird is a symbol of the good things in the world. The bird is all good and does nothing bad. It's gift is that it can sing a beautiful song, and it shares its gift with the world. To kill a mockingbird is the ultimate sin. Like I said, this title symbolizes the death of innocence. We see Scout, the narrator of the story, become aware of how evil people can actually be. She learns that not everyone is nice and kind. She gets to see this up close and personal when her father decides to defend a black man accused of rape. She knows that he is innocent of his accused crime, but she can't seem to wrap her head around the fact that a man can be found guilty of something he didn't do just because of his skin color.
21: Boo Radley is an example of the mockingbird because he is a good man. He came to the rescue when Jem and Scout needed him the most. Another reason why he is a symbol of a mockingbird is because he is someone that the kids like to mess with. Just like a mockingbird is something people shoot. | Tom Robinson is another example the mockingbird because he is purely innocent. He offered the community his services and his help, just like the bird offers its song. | Scout is an example of the mockingbird because she represents innocence. She is a good kid that has a big heart. She helps people through things like the birds song does.
22: Theme | To Kill a Mockingbird has many themes. One of them is that you cannot tell anything about a persons character based on their outward appearance. Skin color means nothing in the grand scheme of things. | The quote being used proves my theme by stating that all people should be and deserve to be respected. It didn't matter to Atticus that black people had different skin than white people. He teaches Scout that it is okay to love everyone, regardless of how they look. | This can be applied to real life because today, racism still exists. It may not be as full blown as it was when this story was written, but it is still a problem that needs to be dealt with. If everyone could respect everyone, the world would be a much better place.
23: "Scout," said Atticus, "nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don't mean anything—like snot-nose. It's hard to explain—ignorant, trashy people use it when they think somebody's favoring Negroes over and above themselves. It's slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody." "You aren't really a nigger-lover, then, are you?" "I certainly am. I do my best to love everybody... I'm hard put, sometimes—baby, it's never an insult to be called what somebody thinks is a bad name. It just shows you how poor that person is, it doesn't hurt you." (Lee, 107).
24: Another important theme in the book is that not everybody has the same ethics or morals. People believe in different things and people do things in ways that can be seen as foreign to others, but you have to respect that person none the less. | The quote I used proves this theme because Scout calls out Walter for his eating habits. She does not realize that people do things differently than her family does. Cal immediately pulls her aside and explains that it doesn't matter what Walter does in their home, he is still to be respected. | This theme can be applied to the real world because today, people still have different ethics. People live in all kinds of different ways and it's our job to make sure that we respect everyone, regardless of their way of life.
25: "There's some folks who don't eat like us," she whispered fiercely, "but you ain't called on to contradict 'em at the table when they don't. That boy's yo' comp'ny and if he wants to eat up the table cloth you let him, you hear?" "He ain't company, Cal, he's just a Cunningham-" "Hush your mouth! Don't matter who they are, anybody sets foot in this house's yo' comp'ny, and don't you let me catch you remarkin' on their ways like you was so high and mighty! Yo' folks might be better'n the Cunninghams but it don't count for nothin' the way you're disgracin' 'em—if you can't act fit to eat at the table you can just set here and eat in the kitchen!" (Lee, 26).
26: Another theme, which is perhaps the most important, is that you never fully understand someone until you put yourself in their shoes. | This quote proves the selected theme because Atticus, a very wise and knowledgeable man and he gives Scout this advice so that she can better understand how other people feel. It is important to the story, and to the growth of Scout as a character. | This theme can be applied to real life because this is a piece of advice everyone needs to follow. There is so much disrespect in the world, but it would all be a lot better if everyone could just put themselves in another's situation. You never fully know how someone else feels until you go through the same thing yourself.
27: "First of all," he said, "if you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you'll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." (Lee,85).
28: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | The feminist school of literary criticism is mainly about picking up on themes of negative attitudes towards woman in literature, and exposing them. There are thee main areas of study in this area of criticism. They are: 1. differences between men and women 2. women in power or power relationships between men and women 3. the female experience
29: Southern Belle Comparison | During the 1930's, there was really one type of woman accepted in society. A Southern Belle. They have impeccable manners, calm confidence, and are loyal to family and friends.
30: Examples | Aunt Alexandra is the stereotypical Southern Belle because she is always a proper lady. She has a very calm air about her, and she is polite and loyal to her brother and his children. | All statements made during the tea party held by Aunt Alexandra show both the positive and negative characteristics of the Southern Belles. A negative is that they enjoy gossip, but a positive characteristic is that they thrive on complimenting each other. | During chapter 24, Miss Maudie plays the calm, confident one. She shows her loyalty by standing up for Atticus. She is kind of like a mediator between the girls at the party and Atticus.
31: Atticus does act differently around the other ladies because they are not close friends nor family. Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie are closer to Atticus, therefore he can share more with them and talk to them differently than he might the other women. | I think this scene represents the women in a negative light. They are gossiping and making rude remarks about others in town. | Scout's impression of each woman is pretty much the same. She doesn't understand fully what is being discussed. She doesn't like their company as much as she likes the company of Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie. The gossip and the making-fun help her with her impressions. She doesn't think all too highly of the women.
32: New Historicism School of Literary Criticism | New Historicism states that you can never know both sides to a story in history. We can never know the real, full story. It also states that while a writing can reflect the the culture in which it was written in, it can also participate in the culture in which it was written in.
33: Examples: | Institutionalized racism - We see this when Atticus builds his case against the Ewells. It is obvious that Tom is not guilty, however he is found guilty just because of his skin color. Personal racism - This is seen when the Ewells blame Tom for a crime he did not commit. They know that just because he is a black man that he will be found guilty. Non-racist attitudes - Scout, Dill, and Jem are the most obvious characters who show this.. Throughout the trial, none of them can understand how a black man can be held responsible for a crime he did not commit, just because of the color of his skin. Non-racist behaviors - Atticus shows non-racist behavior just by defending Tom. He knows that he does not have a good shot at winning the case, but he takes it on anyways with respect and honor. Non-racial prejudices or biases - We can see this in the man that Tom used to work for. He does not for a minute think that Tom was guilty. He even protects Tom's wife from the Ewells when they follow her around.
34: To Kill a Mockingbird reflects the 1930's time period in which it was set in by accurately representing the prejudice of the people in the south. The whites greatly detested the colored people during this time. More often than not, colored men were charged and found guilty of crimes that whites committed. To Kill a Mockingbird reflects the 1950's time period in which it was written by showing a change in the way people acted towards traditional roles in society. In the book, we see that the younger generations do not understand the racism that their parents do. We see that they are ready to challenge the system in America to make sure that justice is correctly given. We also see the roles of women begin to change. Scout represents this. She shows the divergence from the traditional 1900's woman, who was expected to be fresh-faced and beautiful at all times. I think that the publication and the release of the film impacted the 1960's by showcasing how blacks were still treated. I believe that people saw this movie and understood just how they were treating people. I think that this movie/book could have helped change the way that whites viewed the colored.
36: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | The psychoanalytical theory states that a characters behaviors help us understand their inner desires or a reflection of their undiscovered inner desires. There are three parts to the subconscious: 1. The id - the fundamental root of what a person wants. 2. The superego - learned through parental instruction and living in society. 3. The ego - the balance between the id and the superego. The reality.
37: Atticus' definition of a hero is someone who is brave and shows real courage. Someone who was beaten down but pulled through. Tom Robinson can be considered a hero because he was found guilty for a crime that he did not commit. He died on his own terms, trying to return to his wife and children. Jem can be considered a hero because he fought to protect his little sister from Bob Ewell. He broke his arm in the process, but he tried his best to fight Bob away from his sister so that she could run to safety. Boo Radley can be considered a hero because when he sees that the Finch children are in trouble, he decides that he will finally go outside and step in. His actions saved the lives of both children.
38: Lee chose these characters to be heroes because she believed that their actions would impact Scout as she grows. I think we learn that Lee values bravery, courage, and compassion. These characteristics could be a reflection of herself because more often than not, authors base characters off of their own characteristics. I think that she showed all of these characteristics when she chose to write and publish a book about racism in the time period that she did.