FC: To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee | Morgan Hawkins
1: A Visual Literary Analysis by Morgan Hawkins
2: To Kill A Mockingbird is a novel written by Harper Lee during a time when most of the Americans in the south were racist against African Americans. It is loosely based on the Scottsboro trials and Emmett Till.
3: Behind the Story | This book is loosely based on the trials of the Scottsboro trials and the story of Emmett Till. The Scottsboro trials consisted of nine African American teenage boys being accused of raping two white women. The boys were consistently found guilty even after at one of the trials, one of the girls who said they were raped, said it was all a lie. This shows how racist people were in the South in the 1930's. Emmett Till was a 14 year old African American who visited the south and was brutally beaten and murdered after reportedly flirting with a white woman. He whistled at her and said "Hey, baby." That night he was visited by some white men and was beaten to death.
4: Main Characters | -Jean Louise "Scout" Finch-Daughter of Atticus, Sister of Jem -Jeremy Atticus "Jem" Finch- Son of Atticus, Brother of Scout -Atticus Finch- Father of Jem and Scout, Lawyer
5: Setting | Maycomb is a tired old town in Maycomb County, Alabama. "A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County." (1.10) | This setting lets the reader have an idea of what everyday life is like and most likely how the people feel towards each other.
6: Point Of View | To Kill A Mockingbird is told from Scout's first-person perspective. "Why couldn't I mash him?" I asked." Scout is a young girl living in the south trying to get a grip on things going on around her such as the trial, growing up, interacting with different people, and learning what is right and what is wrong.
7: Since the story is told from Scout's point of view, the reader can make their own assumptions and understanding since Scout doesn't necessarily know what's going on. The reader can also see the innocence she has instead of seeing the harsh reality from Atticus or Jem.
8: From a New Perspective | "Easy does it, son," I would say when I found Jem angered by what Mrs. Dubose had said to him and Scout. "She's an old lady and she's ill. You just hold our head high and be a gentleman. Whatever she says to you, it's your job to no t let it make you mad." "She can't be that sick if she hollers at us," Jem said. When we passed Mrs. Dubose's house, I waved my hat and said, "Good evening, Mrs. Dubose. You look like a picture this evening." I told her of the courthouse news and that I hoped with all my heart she'd have a good day tomorrow. I hope she sees tomorrow. She gets worse everyday. But she really is a good example for Scout and Jem. I want them to see what real courage is. Page 133
9: Conflict Inside and Out | Conflict: Tom v. The Jury Type: Man v. Man External The jury wants to convict Tom. Conflict: Atticus v. Guilt Type: Man v. Internal Atticus felt guilty for making Mayella feel bad at court. Conflict: Scout v. Aunt Alexandra Type: Man v. Man External Aunt Alexandra wants Scout to act like a lady and Scout does not choose to act like that.
10: Changes From The Conflict | The jury convicted Tom, but one person from the jury, a Cunningham, felt guilt and wanted to set Tom free. This feeling of guilt went to others in town and Maycomb started to feel pity for Tom. | Atticus feels very guilty after treating Mayella that way and then when Tom goes up to the stand to testify, the opposing lawyer, Mr. Gilmer, treats Tom very rudely. | Aunt Alexandra starts to accept Scout after some time and Scout doesn't think so badly of her aunt. They end up getting along after a while.
11: Characters Static and Dynamic | Static Characters: Aunt Alexandra- She is a southern belle and wants scout to be that way continually through the book. Atticus Finch- He has a set of morals and they are made clear throughout the book. He is always looking out for others. | Dynamic Characters: Jem Finch- While growing up, Jem grows stronger and looks at the world differently. At the beginning, he is just a kid, who doesn't really understand things well. Towards the end, he realizes that things are different and he starts looking at reality a little closer. We can still see the child inside him at the court room when he says Tom will go free, but he is brought back to reality with the sentence Tom is given. Scout Finch- At the beginning, she is tough and would never accept a girl-y thing in her life. With Aunt Alexandra coming, she strts to accept thee women's rold, but she doesn't fill it herself. She respects people more and sees them for who they are. She grows up more and more throughout the book.
12: Symbols | Mockingbirds are a very important symbol in To Kill A Mockingbird. The mockingbird symbolizes how things or people that cause no harm should not be hurt.
13: Characters That Are Mockingbirds | Boo Radley-Boo most likely has some kind of condition for him to stay inside so much. He is characterized as crazy and harmful to his family, but he never does, or if he does, he doesn't do it on purpose. | Tom Robinson- Tom never really raped Mayella, he was just accused of it. He never hurt anyone, he just wanted to help. | Scout Finch_Scout exhibits innocence in all situations such as when she rushed into the middle of the crowd of people she didn't know.
14: Theme | The Existence of Social Inequality The Finches who are pretty well off are near the top of the social classes with most of the townspeople below them. Farmers like the Cunninghams are below the townspeople and the "white trash" Ewells are below the Cunninghams. Then the black people like Clapurnia and Zeebo are below the Ewells and even below them are the mixed people like Mr. Adolphus Raymond's children. | "But I want to play with Walter, Aunty, why can't I?" She took off her glasses and stared at me. "I'll tell you why," she said. "Because—he—is—trash, that's why you can't play with him. I'll not have you around him, picking up his habits and learning Lord-knows-what." (23. 86-87)
15: Aunt Alexandra is saying that Scout can't go play with Walter Cunningham Jr. or inviter him over anymore because she thinks the Cunninghams are "below" the Finches in social class.
16: Growing Up | As Scout and Jem grow up, they lose their innocence and get a more complex view on life and the people around them. They question the hate and prejudice they see in their town and the world. | "Atticus had promised me he would wear me out if he ever heard of me fighting any more; I was far too old and too big for such childish things, and the sooner I learned to hold in, the better off everybody would be." (9.1)
17: This quote shows that Scout is thinking differently on things she used to not give any thought. She used to just fight anytime she was angry. Now she thinks about it before she acts.
18: Coexistence of Good and Evil in All Things | As Scout and Jem grow up, they start seeing the evil in things as they saw the good in everything when they were smaller. Instead of seeing the entire town of Maycomb as good, they start seeing that everyone has good and evil inside them and that it is what they choose that defines them. | " Mr. Cunningham's basically a good man.....he just has his blind spots along with the rest of us......you'll understand folks better when you're older. A mob's always made up of people, no matter what. Mr. Cunningham was part of a mob last night, but he was still a man." (157)
19: This quote has Atticus explaining the good and evil in Mr. Cunningham. Everyone has good and evil inside them. No matter how low they are on the social class scale of Maycomb, they have good. And no matter how high up on the scale they are, they still have bad in them.
20: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | The feminist school of literary criticism finds suggestions of misogyny in pieces of literature from long ago and today. They want to find the differences between men and women, women in power or power relationships between men and women, and the female experience in different pieces of literature by men and women.
21: Aunt Alexandra and Mayella Ewell | Activity #3 -What level of education does each character have? Aunt Alexandra has been taught in the ways of society. She knows what to do in social situations such as the church meetings. Mayella has not been taught anything. She has to stay at home and raise her younger siblings. -What limitations, if any, are placed on her life because she is a woman? Aunt Alexandra has no word in things like her brother's affairs at court or what the townspeople should do. She has no word above men. Mayella has no word at all in any matters. Since she is a woman and in one of the lowest social classes, she can't really do anything about what is being done to her. -What limitations are placed on her because of her social class? Aunt Alexandra is in the highest social class of Maycomb and is only limited by her gender. Mayella on the other hand, is in the second lowest social class and only has a say over the blacks. -How would life be different if she were a white, upper class woman? Aunt Alexandra is a white, upper class woman. Mayella's life would be very different. She would have a very better life. -How would life be different if she were a white, upper class man? Aunt Alexandra would no longer be limited by her gender. She would have a say in everything. Mayella would be even more well off than if she were just a white, upper class woman. She could do almost anything she wanted, but she would have to learn the ways of how society worked.
22: New Historicism School of Literary Criticism | The NewHistoricism School of Literary Criticism says that the truth of a foreign or past culture can never truly be known since records are not usually kept well, such as when a culture is dominated by another one. Also, literary works that reflect the culture it was written in also shape that culture.
23: Allusions Help To Understand The Novel Activity #1 | Pg. 6 Hoover Carts. People living during the Great Depression blamed the economy on President Hoover, so anything poor looking was named after him. This allusion shows the reader what life was like in the setting the book was placed in. Pg. 114 Bread Lines. During the Great Depression, bread lines were where people could stand in line to receive some bred or soup. The lines were very long during the Great Depression. Pg. 203 Jefferson once wrote that all men are created equal. In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson wrote this famous line. Scout says this but in the time of this book's setting, blacks were not made equal to whites. Pg. 3 Battle of Hastings. This is a reference to a decisive battle. It shows the reader that background is important to people of the era. Pg. 32 A man who sat on a flag pole. Flag pole sitting was very popular in the 1930s. This shows the era they are from. Pg. 34 Indian Heads. Before the Lincoln penny, a Native American's head was engraved on the penny. This also shows what era they are from.
24: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | This School of Literary Criticism goes with the Freudian theory of personality. There is the id, basically the "inner child". It has all of humans basic desires. Then comes the super ego, which is the part of the subconscious that has been trained by society to be socially acceptable. Then finally is the ego, which listens to the id, or basic desire, and filters it through the super ego so that it is socially accepted. The ego satisfies both the id and the super ego.
25: Heroes Activity #2 | Atticus' definition of a hero: "It's when you know you're licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what." | Tom Robinson- Tom is a hero because he went through with he trial event hough he knew a white man's word against his would win. Aunt Alexandra- Alexandra is not a hero because she never really put herself on the line, she let others fight battles. For example,a t the missionary society meeting, when Mrs. Meriwether was criticizing Atticus, she let Miss Maudie defend him. Judge Taylor- Judge is a hero because at the end when Boo killed Mr. Ewell, he defended him even though people might have been against Boo's defense.