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To Kill a Mockingbird

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To Kill a Mockingbird - Page Text Content

FC: To Kill a Mockingbird By: Harper Lee | Mixbook by: Kaitlynn Ilges

1: Table of Contents | ~ Setting pgs 2 & 3 ~ Historical Context pgs 4 & 5 ~ Point of View pgs 6 & 7 ~ Conflicts pgs 8 & 9 ~ Characterization pgs 10 & 11 ~ Symbols pgs 12 & 13 ~ Themes pgs 14 & 15 ~ Feminist School of Literary Criticism pgs 16 & 17 ~ New Historicism School of Literary Criticism pgs 18 & 19 ~ Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism pgs 20 & 21

2: Setting | "The house was low, was once white with a deep front porch and green shutters, but had long ago darkened to the color of the slate-fray yard around it. Rain-rotted shingles dropped over the eaves of the veranda; oak trees kept the sun away" (Lee 10). This quote gives the setting a dark and scary feel. It makes the reader feel uncomfortable. | "From the other side, however, Greek revival columns clashed with a big nineteenth-century clock tower housing a rusty unreliable instrument, a view indicating a people determined to preserve every physical scrap of the past" (Lee 217). This indicates that the people of Maycomb are used to their surroundings and what they grew up on. They don't want to change what is around them, or, in this case, the setting. | "Four Negroes rose and gave us their front-row seats. The colored balcony ran along three walls of the courtroom like a second-story veranda, and from it we could see everything" (Lee 219). This quote shows that the setting is centered around the 1930s and takes place in the south, when the whites were extremely racist and prejudice to the blacks.

3: If the setting was centered around a different time period and took place in a different location, then the characters and conflict would change. The characters are accustomed to the setting of this story, so if the setting change, then the characters would be portrayed differently. If the characters lived in a different location, during a different time period, then they would live, talk, and act differently due to the customs and ways of their environment. The conflicts would change, also, because the characters would be accustomed to a different way of life, so they would obviously act different which would influence them to cause and experience different conflicts.

4: Historical Context | The Scottsboro trial was about an incident that occurred in 1931. The Scottsboro boys were nine black boys. One night they were riding on a train when two white prostitutes decided to ride the train illegally. When the girls got caught, they accused the nine boys of raping them in order to get out of trouble. The boys went to trial seven times and was accused of being guilty at all of the trials. At one of the trials, the girls admitted that they had lied and that the boys had never raped them, but the boys were still accused of being guilty. | The Emmett Till incident occurred in 1955. Emmett Till was a 14-year-old boy who visited his relatives in Mississippi. He was from the North, so he wasn't used to people being so racist and prejudice. While he was at Bryant's Grocery and Meat Market, he supposedly whistled and Mrs Bryant. Days later, Emmett was kidnapped from his house in the middle of the night, beaten, shot, and thrown in the Tallahatchie River. | These two events are extremely similar to events that happened in To Kill a Mockingbird. These two events are similar to what happened to Tom Robinson. In the novel, Tom Robinson was accused of rape, never won, and was eventually killed at the end.

5: In the novel, Tom Robinson went to trial because he was accused of raping Mayella Ewell. | In the novel, Tom was accused of being guilty even though all evidence proved that he couldn't have done it. | In the novel, Tom's fate ended up being that he would be killed. | In the novel, a mob of people went at night to the prison where Tom was. They surrounded Atticus and tried to kill him and Tom. | The Scottsboro boro boys went to trial because they were accused of raping the two prostitutes. | Similar to the Scottsboro boys getting accused of being guilty even though all of their evidence proved that they were innocent and the girls admitted that they lied. | Emmett Till's fate ended up being that he would be killed. | A mob of people went to Emmett Till's house at night and killed him.

6: Point of View | "I suggested that one could be a ray of sunshine in pants as well, but Aunty said that one had to behave like a sunbeam, that I was born good but had grown progressively worse every year" (Lee 108). This quote shows how this story is first person point of view because it uses I. | The narrator of this story is Scout. Scout is a tomboy who likes to play outside all of the time with her older brother Jem. Scout doesn't like to act like a girl, she likes to act how Jem acts. At the beginning of the story Scout is six and at the end of the story she is eight. | Harper Lee chose to tell this story from Scout's point of view because Scout is unbiased about racism and is not prejudice like most people in her society.She is able to tell the whole story about what happened. She is able to tell how all the characters were and felt during the entire story.She is able to feel sympathy for all charceters and not just people like her. | First Person Point of View

8: Jem’s Perspective of the Tom Robinson Trial The gala occasion was now over and it was time to go into the court room for the trial. We knew Atticus wouldn’t want us there, so we had to make sure he didn’t see. “Let’s go in,” said Dill. “Naw, we better wait till they get in, Atticus might not like it if he sees us,” I said. When we finally got into the courtroom, it was more crowded than we had expected. During all of the chaos, Scout got separated from me and Dill. I knew we would have to go back to find her, but right now we had to find somewhere to sit that can keep us hidden from Atticus. Dill and I ran all around looking for a seat, but discovered that all of the seats were full. We ran downstairs to find Scout and ended up running into the Negroes that were going upstairs. I called to Scout, “Scout, come on, there ain’t a seat left. We’ll hafta stand up.” “Can’t you all get in?” asked Reverend Sykes I said, “Naw, Scout here messed us up.” Then Reverend Sykes said, “There’s not a seat downstairs. Do you all reckon it’ll be all right if you came to the balcony with me?” “Gosh yes,” I said.

9: When we got to the Colored balcony, four Negroes rose and gave us their front-row seats. We sat patiently and waited for the trial to start. The trial started and Heck Tate was the first person on the witness stand. They asked him questions about Mayella’s injury and questioned him about what he did for her after the attack. After Heck Tate, Bob Ewell was the next person up. When it was Atticus’s turn to question him, he asked him questions that no one else would have asked. Atticus also asked Bob to do something that played a big role in the trial. Atticus asked Bob to write his name. When Bob wrote his name, he wrote it with his left hand. Mayella’s injuries were on the right side of her face, so only a left handed person could have beaten her like that. After figured this out about Bob, I knew we were getting somewhere and were closer to winning the trial. When Tom Robinson finally got to the stand, Atticus discovered something that put the trial into our favor. Atticus discovered that Tom could not use his left hand at all because he had gotten it mangled in a cotton gin when he was a boy. After this, I knew we were going to win. “We got this. We got this.” I told Scout and Dill. After the trial, the jury had to go discuss the verdict. The jury was gone for nearly two hours, so I knew that Atticus had made it hard on them. I knew that Atticus had made an impression on them and had made them truly think. When the jury finally came back, the judge asked them for their verdict. Judge Taylor polled the jury: “Guilty guilty guilty guilty.” My hands were white from gripping the railing so hard and my shoulders jerked, as if each “guilty” was a separate stab between them. Atticus had lost, and it was for no reason. I knew it was unfair and I couldn’t stand to know he had lost.

10: Conflict | One conflict from the novel is when Bob Ewell attacked Scout and Jem. This conflict is man vs. man and is external. There were three characters involved: Bob Ewell, Scout, and Jem. All three characters changed as a result of their conflict. Before the conflict, Jem and Scout were not entirely convinced about how dangerous the world can truly be. Bob was greatly disliked by the community due to what occurred in the trial. After the conflict, Jem and Scout finally understood that the world can be extremely dangerous at times. Bob is viewed as a monster for harming innocent children and ends up dead.

11: Another conflict in this novel is when Scout fought her cousin Francis on Christmas. This conflict is man vs. man and is external.There were two characters involved: Scout and Francis. Francis didn't change as a result of this conflict, but I feel like Scout did in some way. Before the conflict, Scout would start fights with people who would call Atticus bad names because she didn't know why they were calling him those names. After this conflict, Atticus talked to Scout about it and told her why he was called those names and what they meant. Even though Scout still didn't like people calling Atticus names, she started less fights because she was more aware of what they meant. | Another conflict in this novel is when Tom Robinson was put on trial because Bob Ewell accused him of raping his daughter Mayella. This conflict is man vs. man and is external. The two characters that were involved are Tom Robinson and Bob Ewell. Both characters changed as a result of this conflict. Before this conflict, Tom was an innocent man who helped everyone for free and Bob was seen as a good citizen and no one minded him that much. After this conflict, Tom was an innocent man who was proven guilty, he was put into jail, and, from then on, his life changed forever. Bob was seen as an evil man by everyone in Maycomb and he couldn't get a job or anything.

12: Characterization | There are also many static characters shown in the novel. Two of them are Calpernia and Miss Maudie | Calpernia is the maid of Atticus, Jem, Scout. She acts like a mother to Jem and Scout. She is a static character because she doesn't really change much throughout the story. She doesn't experience a conflict or anything that would cause her to change. She acts the same at the end as she does in the beginning. | Miss Maudie is the neighbor of Atticus, Jem, and Scout. She is a really good friend of Scout because Scout always goes over to her house when Jem won't let her hangout with him and Dill. She is a statics character becau she doesn't change much in the course of the story. There is not conflict or anything that could cause her to change. She acts the same and the end as she does in the beginning.

13: There are many dynamic characters shown throughout the novel. Two big ones, however, are Jem and Atticus. | Jem is the brother of the narrator. He loves football and being outside. He is 11 at the beginning of the novel and 13 at the end. He is a dynamic character because of the way he changes in the novel. At the beginning, he was more childish and played outside with Scout all of the time. At the end, he grew up more, so he didn't want to play with Scout as much and wanted to spend more time alone. He was also not as nice to Scout. | Atticus is Jem and Scout's father. He is a lawyer and the one who represented Tom Robinson in his trail. He is also a dynamic character because of the way he changes in the novel. At the beginning, he isn't worried about anything. He tells Scout and Jem that everything is fine and that it isn't time to worry yet. He also isn't concerned when Bob Ewell threatens him. At the end, after Jem and Scout get attacked by Bob, he realizes that there really is something to worry about and actually becomes concerned.

14: Symbols | The title, To Kill a Mockingbird, plays a big role throughout the course of the story. In the story, Atticus buys Jem and Scout air rifles for Christmas. Atticus then informs Jem and Scout about what they can and can't shoot with their air rifles. Atticus tells them that they can shoot tin cans or any bird, except for the mockingbird. Atticus told Jem and Scout that it is a sin to kill a mockingbird because they cause no harm to anyone. He says that all the mockingbird does is bring beautiful music. The mockingbird represents innocence and beauty in this book. There are many characters in this book that are considered mockingbirds.

15: Boo Radley would be considered a mockingbird because he is basically portrayed as an innocent child. He doesn't harm anyone, even though most people in Maycomb have stories about him that make him seem like a monster. Also, he never comes out of his house, so there is no way that he can hurt anyone. He also saved Jem and Scout's lives from the attack of Bob Ewell by killing Bob Ewell and bringing them home. | Tom Robinson is a mockingbird because he is actually innocent. In the trial of the raping of Mayella Ewell, Tom was accused of being guilty, even though all the evidence proved that there was no way he could have done it. He also would do jobs for Mayella and other people for no cost just because he wanted to help out. | Scout would be considered a mockingbird because she is a child and doesn't hurt anyone. She is growing and learning and has her whole life ahead of her. It is a sin to kill an innocent child, so she is like a mocking bird because it is a sin to kill a mockingbird.

16: Themes | One of the themes in this novel is people shouldn't be judged on their outside appearance and actions. An quote from the book is "Before he went inside the house, he stopped in front of Boo Radley. 'Thank you for my children, Arthur,' he said" (Lee 370). This quote proves my theme because it shows how characters in this novel should not have judged Boo Radley based on how he acted and looked.all throughout the book other characters spread all of these rumors about Boo. They said he was crazy and a monster. They said he stabbed his father also. Everyone was scared of him, including Jem and Scout. However, whenever Boo saved Jem and Scout from the attack of bob Ewell, everyone realized that Boo was not how everyone said he was. This theme can be applied to real life whenever a white person is racist towards a black person.Even today there are still some people who are racist. Some whites still make fun of or hate on blacks for their skin color instead of giving them a chance.

17: Another theme is sometimes, in life, things don't turn out the way one would hope. A quote from the novel that supports this theme is "JudgeTaylor was polling the jury: 'Guilty... guilty... guilty... guilty...' i peeked at Jem: his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each 'guilty' was a separate stab between them" (Lee 282). This shows how unexpected it was for Tom Robinson to be accused of being guilty. Throughout the whole trial, Jem was certain that Tom was going to be innocent and that Atticus had won. This can be shown in life when a parent ruins their teenager's plans. Teenagers make plans with their friends sometimes without asking their parents first because they figure their parents will be fine with it. Sometimes, when they do ask their parents, their parents end up saying no. | Another theme is children can have an impact on the way someone else talks or acts. A quote from the novel that illustrates this theme is "'I'll tell him you said hey, little lady,' he said. Then he straightened up and waved a big paw. 'Let's clear out,' he called. 'Let's get going, boys'" (Lee 206). This quote shows how Scout stopped the mob from doing any harm to Atticus or Tom. This shows how big of an impact Scout had on the actions of the mob. This can be shown in life whenever a toddler is in a room with adults. Whenever adults are in a room with a toddler or toddlers, the adults act and talk differently. One example is that the adults don't cuss like they normally would.

18: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | The feminist school of literary criticism is writing that basically shows how men would write about woman. It shows how society views the perfect women. It is writing that shows the stereotype of woman. | What is the relationship between Aunt Alexandra and Scout when they are first introduced? When Aunt Alexandra and Scout are first introduced Aunt Alexandra was disgusted by the way Scout dressed. She doesn't like that Scout wears pants instead of dresses. A lady during this time is supposed to wear dresses all of the time. She said that Scout could not be a ray of sunshine in her father's life unless she acted like a lady like she was supposed to. When Aunt Alexandra said that Scout wasn't a ray of sunshine, she hurt Scout's feelings. Scout and Aunt Alexandra didn't have a very good relationship.

19: What does Aunt Alexandra see as her role in Scout's life? Aunt Alexandra sees that her role in Scout's life is to behave like a mother to her and to teach her what is right and wrong. She feels that it is also to teach her how to behave like a lady. | What does Scout think of Aunt Alexandra? Scout thinks that Aunt Alexandra is very strict and proper. Scout thinks Aunt Alexandra is very lady like and the stereotypical lady during this time. Scout thinks she has to act all lady-like around her aunt. She has to act and talk differently around her aunt than she normally acts around everyone else. | What support do Aunt Alexandra and Scout receive from other characters in the book? Scout receives support from Atticus, Jem, and Calpurnia because, even though they want her to behave and listen to Aunt Alexandra, they tell her not to let Aunt Alexandra get to her and to do what makes her happy. Aunt Alexandra gets support from her missionary circle because they act just like her and they feel like Scout needs to act more like a lady also.

20: New Historicism School of Literary Criticism | The new historicism school of literary criticism is writing that retells events that happened in history. | There are many allusions shown in this novel. | 1. "Not exactly. The Cunninghams are country folks, farmers, and the crash hit them hardest" (Lee 27). The allusion in this quote is the crash. The crash,or The Stock Market Crash, was the sudden decline of stock prices that resulted in the loss of the paper wealth. This is significant to understanding this novel because the readers are able to realize what time period the characters live during. This also helps the readers understand the characters and conflicts better. | 2. "I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing, it really began with Andrew Jackson" (Lee 3). The allusion in this quote is to Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States. This is significant to understanding the novel because it helps the readers understand what caused the events that led up to Jem and Scout's incident with Bob Ewell. Andrew Jackson was the reason that the Finch's lived in Alabama in the first place, which caused them to live in the same community as Bob Ewell.

21: 3. "If General Jackson hadn't run the Creeks up the creek, Simon Finch would never have paddled up the Alabama and where would we be if he hadn't?" (Lee 3). The allusion is to General Jackson. General Jackson was the general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. This is significant to understanding the novel because it lets the reader know how the Finch's ended up in Alabama in the first place. It also lets the reader know how long the Finch family has been in Alabama, since the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. | 4. "Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the family that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of Hastings" (Lee 3 & 4). The allusion in this quote is to the Battle of Hastings. The Battle of Hastings was the war fought between the Norman-French army and the English army. This is significant to understanding the novel because the reader knows how many of their ancestors Scout and Jem actually know. The only ancestor they know of is Simon Finch, so they don't really know how their family came to be or what it was like before their life in Alabama.

22: New Historicism School of Criticism | 5. I'm just trying to tell you the new way they're teachin' the first grade, stubborn. It's the Dewey Decimal System" (Lee 24). The allusion is to the Dewey Decimal System. The Dewey Decimal System is proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. This is significant in understanding the novel because the reader is able to understand the way Scout is taught and why she might not like it. It helps the reader connect to how Scout is feeling because they also use the Dewey Decimal System and know how it is.

23: 6. As for me, I knew nothing except what I gathered from Time magazine and reading everything I could lay hands on at home, but as I inched sluggishly along the treadmill of the Maycomb county school system, I could not help receiving the impression that I was being cheated out of something" (Lee 43 & 44). The allusion in this quote is to Time magazine. Time magazine is a weekly news magazine. This is significant to understanding the novel is the reader knows where Scout got all of her information from and are able to know why Scout is so smart. They can also connect because they know what Time magazine is. | These allusions influence the way the reader perceives or understands the context of the novel because the reader knows what all of the allusions are. If they don't understand the setting or events in the novel they can use the allusions because they already know what all of the allusions mean. They can also relate the story to their lives through the allusions and are able to understand how the characters feel and why they act the way they do.

24: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | The psychoanalytical school of literary criticism is writing based on Sigmund Freud's theories about our minds. It tell about three areas of our minds that occur throughout our life. These three areas are id, ego, and superego. | In this activity I characterize seven characters in the novel as functioning either as an id, an ego, or a superego. | 1. Atticus is considered an ego. In the novel, he tells Scout not to be mean to Aunty and to do what she tells her. However, he also tells her to be herself and do what makes her happy. | 2. Aunt Alexandra is considered a superego. She wants Scout to act the way that society expects ladies to act. In the novel, Aunt Alexandra wants Scout to wear dresses and dress like a girl instead of like a boy. When Aunt Alexandra has her missionary circle, she makes Scout wear a dress and join them. | 3. Jem is considered a ego. Jem wants Scout to act grown up like him and to leave him alone sometimes. However, there are times where Jem plays with Scout like she likes.

25: 4. Dill is considered an id. Dill comes to Maycomb every summer. When he comes down he plays all of these games with Jem and Scout. He asks Scout to marry him and always tries to get Boo Radley to come out of his house. he does all of the childish things that Scout likes to do. | 5. Boo Radley is considered an id. Since Boo is sick, he acts a lot like a child. He is about forty years old and still acts like he is a little kid. He cuts up newspapers and is all shy and timid. He brings out he childish part of his brain. | 6. Calpurnia is considered an ego. In the novel, Calpurnia teaches Scout the right way to act in society. She teaches her how a lady is supposed to her. She scolds her when she is rude or when she misbehaves. However. she does let Scout be herself and tells her to do what makes her happy. | 7. Miss Maudie is considered an ego. She shows Scout what a lady should be. She also tells Atticus to teach Scout and how to behave. However, she is a good friend of Scout. She allows Scout to come over to her house and hangout with her when she has no one else to play with up. She satifies Scout's needs and lets her do what she enjoys. She also bakes for Scout like she likes.

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  • Title: To Kill a Mockingbird
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