S: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
FC: To Kill a Mockingbird | Harper Lee | Lisa Kitchen
1: Table of Contents | Setting................................... 2-3 | Scottsboro Boys and Emmet Till.......4-5 | Real World Events vs TKaM...............6 Point of View............................7-10 Conflict.................................11-13 Characterization......................14-15 Symbols....................................16 Themes.................................17-19 Feminist School of Literary Criticism 20-21 New Historian School of Literary Criticism 24-26 Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism 27-30
2: Setting | "Mrs. Dubose would hound Jem for a while on her favorite subjects, her camellias and our father's nigger-loving propensities... (Lee 144). | - Majority of the white southerners that live in Macomb are racists towards African Americans. | "Macomb was an old town but it was a tired old town when I first know it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse jagged in the square" (Lee 6). | -The story is set in Macomb, Alabama in the early 1930s. | "People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer" (Lee 6). | -Macomb is a simple own where the community lives a typical life day by day.
3: The setting in To Kill a Mockingbird is crucial to understand the story. Knowing that the story takes place in the south during the 1930's shows that racism and segregation were happening during this time. If the story took place in a different region than the conflicts would completely change. Racism wouldn't have been as big of a deal if it would have taken place in the north. | Setting
4: Scottsboro Bros | The Scottsboro brothers were nine boys being accused of raping two woman. They were still found guilty even after the white woman admitted that it was all made up.
5: Emmett Till | Emmett Till was a black boy who traveled south to visit his cousin. He was hung for saying "Hey baby" to a white woman.
6: Real World Events | TKaM Events | The Scottsboro brothers were accused of raping two white women. | Tom Robinson was accused of raping a white woman. | The lawyer defending the Scottsboro boys believed they were innocent. | Atticus believed his defendant, Tom Robinson, was innocent. | The two women lied about getting raped by the Scottsboro Boys | Mayella Ewell lied about being raped by Tom Robinson | Emmett Till was taken by two white boys to be hung. | Tom Robinson was shot seventeen times for trying to escape the prison.
7: Point of View | First person | "I spat it out" (Lee 49). | The story was told from a young girl's perspective. Scout was innocent and believed that she understood anything and everything. | Harper Lee chose to write this story from the perspective of a young girl instead of Jem or Atticus's point of view because it simply showed the innocence of a child. Children have a much different perspective on things than adults do because of their lack of knowledge on the world.
8: Atticus’s Perspective After super, I decided that I was going to sit outside Tom’s cell to make sure he was safe. I went into the living room carrying a long electrical extension cord with a light bulb on the end. “Im going out for a while,” I said to Jem and Scout. I took the car and drove off. I ran a long extension cord between the bars of one of the second floor windows and down the side of the building. I was sitting propped up against the front door of the jail, reading the newspaper. As I look up from my newspaper, four dusty cars came from the Meridian highway, moving slowly in a line. I closed my paper, set it on my lap, and pushed back my hat. In ones and twos, men got out of the cars. I stayed where I was. “He in there, Mr. Finch?” a man said. “He is,” I answered, “and he’s asleep. Don’t wake him up.” | Point of View
9: Atticus’s Perspective After super, I decided that I was going to sit outside Tom’s cell to make sure he was safe. I went into the living | The men whispered amongst themselves. “You know what we want,” another man said. “Get aside from the door Mr. Finch.” “You can turn around and go home again, Walter,” I said pleasantly. “Heck Tate is around here somewhere.” I went back and forth with the men. Out of nowhere, Scout comes running out of a bush with Jem and Dill not too far behind. A pain of fear was rushing through my mind. I got up from my chair, moving very slowly. I put the newspaper down carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. “Go home, Jem,” I said. “Take Scout and Dill home.” None of them even budged. “Go home,” I said. Jem shook his head and didn’t move a muscle. As I put my hands on my hips, so did Jem’s, and we faced each other. He refused to leave the jail.
10: “I’ll send them home,” a burly man said, and grabbed Jem roughly by the collar. He yanked Jem nearly off of is feet. Scout yelled and kicked the man, causing him to fall back in horrific pain. One of them said I had fifteen seconds to get my kids out of there. I was practically begging them to leave and go home. “Hey, Mr. Cunningham. How’s your entailment getting’ along?” Scout said. The big man just blinked and hooked his thumbs in his overall straps. He seems uncomfortable; he cleared his throat and looked away. Scout insisted on continuing their conversation. She kept talking about his son. She looked at me and I said nothing. The man straightened up, waved his big paw and left with all of his men. Doors slammed, engines coughed, and they were gone. I walked back to the jail and leaned against it with my face against the wall. Scout asked if we could head home and we most certainly did.
11: Conflict | - | Man vs Character: External | -As Jem is looking through the window of the Radley house, he got a glimpse of a shadow. Startled, He ran away and went under the fence. His pants were caught but he had no time to stop. Later that night, Jem went back to find his pants folded nicely on top of the fence. | Before the incident, Jem was courageous and brave throughout his everyday life. He always took the lead. After the incident, Jem's attitude had changed. He was terribly frightened by the Radley residence. As a result, He became much more cautious.
12: Conflict | Man vs Nature: External | - When Jem and Scout went exploring , Jem spotted a dog with rabies down the road. After the whole street was notified, Atticus rushed home. Mr. Tate and Atticus argued back and forth about who has to kill he dog. Finally, Atticus killed the dog in one shot. Jem and Scout were amazed after they had learned Attiucus's talent. | Before Atticus shot the dog, Jem believed that Atticus was only one-dimensional and did not have an actual talent. After Aticus shot the dog, Jem's whole prespective changed. He saw his father in a new way and respected his natural talent.
13: Conflict | Man vs Man: External After Tom Robinson is moved to the Macomb county jail, there was talk of a lynch mob. The following evening Atticus goes to the jail and sits outside of Tom's cell. The Mob appears, demanding Atticus to move away from the jail. Scout and Jem run out of the bushes and saves Atticus from potentially being killed by the mob | Before the incident at the jail, Atticus was more relaxed about what Scout and Jem did. After the incident, he was much more cautious and strict about what his kids did.
14: Characterization | Dynamic Characters: | Jem: A young, adventurous boy who is known to be a trouble-maker. As he grows up, he wants to be just like his father, Atticus. | Throughout the beginning of the story, Jem did typical child things such as attempting to get Boo Radley out of the his house. As the story progressed, he matured and was more aware of his surroundings. | In the beginning, Scout's main focus was to get Boo Radley out of his house. BY the end, she had a better understanding of racism and being prejustice. | Scout: A girl who would be considered as a tomboy. She doesn't quite understand what is going on around her.
15: Static Characters: | Characterization | Atticus: An honest, kind, and compassionate man. He uses his wise mind for the good and is open-minded. | Throughout the Tom Robinson trial, he consistently stays compassionate towards all of the hateful people about the case. | Bob Ewell: An ignorant and racist man who lives a low-class lifestyle. He is known as the town's drunk. | Bob is the same dirty, drunken man throughout the entire story and later dies because of it.
16: Symbols | Atticus explains to Jem that killing a mockingbird is wrong because they are innocent and don't harm anyone. The mockingbird symbolizes innocence. | Boo Radley: He remains in his house and never comes out to harm anyone. Yet, the entire community still feels threatened by him. Boo saved Jem and Scout from being murdered by Bob Ewell. | Tom Robinson: He is accused for being guilty of raping Mayella Ewell but he is actually innocent. He is being punished for a crime he did not commit. | Scout Finch: A young girl who doesn't understand as much as the adults do. She really displays her innocence the night that the mob went to the jail.
17: Themes | Detail | Children's innocent view on the world | Evidence | " If you had been on that jury, and eleven other boys like you, Tom would be a free man" (Lee 295). | Elaboration | Children see the truth in situations because they don't understand the reality of it. | This applies to the real world because often times, children are corrupted by their parents' beliefs as they are growing up
18: Theme | Detail | People should be equal in the eyes of the law | Evidence | "I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this defender to his family" (Lee 275). | Elaboration | During this time, men were not seen equally in public but they should all be treated equally within the court room. | Being equal in the real world within the court room helps us to identify those who are guilty and those who are innocent.
19: Theme | Detail | Racism blinds people from seeing the truth | Evidence | " Now don't be so condident, Mr. Jem I ain't ever seen any jury decide in favor of a colored man over a white man" (Lee 279). | Elaboration | This theme can be applied to real life because people only see what they want which isn't always the truth. | The jury decided Tom Robinson was guilty only because he was colored and it was his word against a white woman's.
20: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | The Feminist School of literary criticism has a feminist point of view. Their purpose is to address the inequalities between each sex in pieces of literature. Their ultimate goal is to chance the stereotypical vision of a woman. The feminist approach is simply based on the negative attitudes towards women.They believe that the works by women should be judged differently then those created by a man. | The Feminist School of Literary Criticism is used to analyze literature on three main areas: 1)Differences between men and women 2)Women in power or power relationships between men and women 3)The female experience
21: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | Southern Belle: | A kind-hearted southern woman with social grace. They are always good-mannered and could make any guest feel welcome. The "Southern belle" displays Southern hospitality, beauty, and a flirtatious yet classy attitude. They are high-class women. | Aunt Alexandria is your stereotypical southern Belle due to certain characteristics she possesses. In chapter 24, she invited her missionary circle over for tea. They discuss several topics such as their own African American servants. This behavior is a typical southern belle characteristic. Aunt Alexandria displays the characteristics of a Southern Belle.
22: New Historian School of Criticism | The New Historian School of Literary Criticism looks at literature through a historical point of view. Their ultimate goal is to eliminate the assumption that there cam be a direct comparison between the culture in a piece of literature and the culture of real world at the time. This can't be done because history is told from one side. Literature can often influence the culture it is reflecting. | The New Historian School of Literary Criticism analyzes literature on several areas such as: 1) Traditional history is subjective by the writer and the reader 2)Traditional history is only told from one point of view 3) People bring their own experience and point of view that can change the meaning of the text.
23: Dracula A goth character in the story "Dracula". A legend where half-human vampire was living among humans and killing them. | Allusions | The reader must have an understanding of the reference to know why Jem is so sophisticated. | Civil War Fought between north and south. It was caused because of slavery. There were many deaths. | To know how the south viewed the north, what the civil war stood for, and what the south believed in. | New Historian School of Criticism
24: New Historian School of Criticism | Allusions | Andrew Jackson - A general during the civil war and the 7th president of the U.S. | To understand how Simon Finch was able to paddle up to Alabama after Andrew drove the creeks back and how the Finch landing came about. | Battle of Hastings -Fought on October 14, 1066 between the French and English. It was estimated that about 17,000 were killed. | It helps the reader understand why it is a shame not to have any ancestors on either side.
25: Allusions | John Wesley A Christian theologian who is credited with the foundation of Evangelical movement known as methodism. | To understand why SImon was mindful of him and why he was thinking of his teachings as he made his practicing medicine. | Thomas Jefferson He was one of the founding fathers of America, wrote the Declaration of Independence, and was the third president. | He was known as an outstanding, loyal, and respectable man. When he refers to him in trial, the reader is able to understand how Atticus views Tom. | New Historian School of Criticism
26: Allusions | Allusions | Allusions influence the way the reader perceives or understand the context in the novel because if the reader can compare the allusions to their own common knowledge, they can better understand the story. | New Historian School of Criticism
27: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | The Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism is split into two different views. | Veiw 1 Characters of the book can be understood better by examining their subconcious. 3 parts of the subconcious: Ego: reality Id: Basic desire Super Ego: the opposite of Id | View 1 is used to analyze literature by understanding the characters subconcious. This helps the reader understand the characters' conflicts. | View 2 There is a connection between the piece of literature and the author of the piece. | View 2 is used to analyze literature by understanding the author. It states that the authors portrays themselves within the book. Several authors will place a setting in a place where they grew up.
28: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | Atticus | Ego | Atticus displays ego because he realizes it is considered socially unacceptable, but he still chooses to defend Tom. | Aunt Alexandria | Super ego | Alexandria is constantly scolding scout to have more class and to act like a lady. She wouldn't allow Scout to have Walter over because it wouldn't follow social order.
29: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | Jem | Ego | Jem is always back and fourth with Scout. One day hes yelling at her and the next he is tempting her. | Dill | Id | Dill is never concerned about what other think of him. He is the one who always gets the group in trouble.
30: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | Boo Radley | Id | Boo represents the ultimate temptation. He manipulates Scout, Jem, and Dill into their desires and ignore what is right. | Calpurina | Ego | She wants the kids to have good behavior but she goes against the rules and brings Jem and Scout to her church. | Miss Maudie | Ego | Miss Maudie wants Scout to be a good member of society and she cares about her actions but not about her clothes or words.