FC: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Mixbook by Cailey Pyle
1: Table of Contents Setting...Pages 2-6 Point of View...Pages 7-9 Conflict...Page 10 Characterization...Page 11 Symbolism...Page 12 Literary Criticism...Pages 13-17
2: Setting Understanding the context of the setting is important to understanding the characters and the conflicts they face. For example, based on the time period, we can see maybe what kinds of conflicts these characters would face or why those conflicts arise. In this story specifically, the time period helps demonstrate that racism was a huge problem and that's where the conflict comes from. Also, part of setting is characterization. Knowing the characters' personalities can help in understanding how and why the characters react to the conflict.
3: "Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when i first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square" (Lee 6). This quote demonstrates part of the setting because it is painting a picture of Maycomb. It is showing kind of what the area looks like. | "When I was almost six and Jem was nearly ten, our summertime boundaries (within calling distance of Calpurnia) were Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose's house two doors to the north of us, and the Radley place three doors to the south" (Lee 7). This shows how small Maycomb is. Everyone knows and trusts eachother enough that these two young kids, 6 and 10, were allowed to wonder the town. | "People moved slowly then. They ambled acrossthe square,shuffledin and out of the store around i, took their time about everything" (Lee 6). This is trying to show kind of what Maycomb looks like during the day on a normal day.
4: The Scottsboro Trials The Scottsboro boys were a group of nine black men who were accused of raping two white women. These two women were prostitutes who were on a train illegally trying to cross the border and they were caught. To make themselves look innocent, they | said these nine men gang raped them. They were put on trial and they were sentenced to death. They had several appeals until finally, about 6 years later, they were acquitted.
5: Emmett Till Emmett Till was a young black boy who was brutally murdered by white men. He whistled at a white woman on a dare and later that night was dragged out of his bed and killed.
6: 1. Emmett Till was dragged out of his bed at night and murdered after he whistled at the white woman. 2. The Scottsboro boys were accused of rape by the two girls to make themselves look innocent. 3. The girls admitted that they were lying and the boys were still found guilty and sentenced to death. 4. The Lynch mob (group of white men who killed black men accused of rape and murder) showed up at the jail during the trials to kill the Scottsboro boys. | 1. Tom Robinson was dragged out of his bed at night after he supposedly raped Mayella Ewell. 2. Tom Robinson was accused of rape by Mayella and Bob Ewell to make Bob look innocent. 3. Evidence proved that Mayella and Bob were lying but Tom was still found guilty and sentenced to death. 4. The Cunningham Lynch mo showed up at the jail to ill Tom Robinson. | Real World Events vs To Kill a Mockingbird Events
7: Point Of View The point of view in To Kill a Mockingbird is told from Scout's point of view and it is in first person. " I wondered if Jem's activities had put her there and fo a moment i felt sorry for her" (Lee 141). Scout is 8 years old. The author probably chose to tell the story from an 8-year-old's point of view because there's that innocence in her. She's so young and she sees people the as they are. Children are great judges of character. Scout can see the true good in Tom and the true evil in everything that's going on. This could also be to open the reader's eyes and show them the faults in society.
8: Snowman in Jem's Point of View I giggled a little as scout pleaded to Atticus. “It’s just snow, Scout,” I said, “besides, it’s mighty fun to play in! Come on outside.” We both ventured into the newly fallen snow, slowly at first on account of the fact that this was new to the both of us. This is one of the best moments in my life. I had only ever heard of snow, never actually seen it. “Jem, what are we gonna do?” Scout asked. “You’ll see,” I told her. “Go get the basket and haul all the snow you can rake up from the back yard to the front. Walk back in your tracks, though.” I didn’t want her to walk all over the place and ruin the fresh snow so we’d have no spot for our snowman. “Are we gonna have a snow baby, Jem?” I wished she’d be quiet and wait to see what I wanna do. “No, a real snowman. Gotta work hard, now.” I told her. She had an eager expression now, I know she’ll cooperate. I ran to the back yard in search for tools I could use to help make this snowman. I came back with a garden hoe. I decided that the best place to build the snowman was behind the woodpile so I started to dig there. Then I went in to grab the laundry basket so I could move some dirt to the front yard.
9: “Don’t you think this is kind of a mess?” Scout asked me. “Won’t look messy later,” I answered. I proceeded to make the base of the snowman out of dirt. I figured it’d be easier to make the mold out of dirt and cover it with snow so that it’d be sturdy. I then took some peach tree branches to make some arms. “Looks kinda like Stephanie Crawford with her hands on her hips,” Scout said, “Fat in the middle with tiny arms.” “I’ll make the arms bigger then.” I patted snow over the arms. “Mr. Avery is kinda shaped like a snowman isn’t he?” I asked. I then used wood to make eyes, a nose, a mouth, and buttons. “It’s beautiful Jem,” said Scout. I couldn’t wait for Atticus to come home and see what we made.
10: Conflicts 1. Tom Robinson was found guilty in court, even though everyone saw the evidence and knew he was innocent, just because he's black. (Man vs Society\External conflict) Before he went to court Tom was just known as the horrible man that raped a white woman. It wasn't until after court that everyone saw him as the nice guy he was. He didn't necessarily change but his image did. 2. Bob Ewell was angry at Atticus for making him look bad in court. He spit in Atticus's face and threatened him. (Man vs Man\External conflict) Atticus knew while talking to Bob Ewell that he wouldn't be happy about being proved wrong. He knew people would be mad at him after court but he was going to do what was right anyway. He really didn't change after the conflict. He was still happy that he did what was right and he wasn't scared of Bob. 3. Scout doesn't act like how a lady would act in that time. Her family and friends keep trying to change her to act like a lady but she just doesn't want to. (Man vs Man and Man vs society\External conflict) Scout starts out totally hating every idea of anything ladylike. She doesn't change much but he tries a little bit around her aunt to act like a lady.
11: Characterization Dynamic characters- characters that undergo dramatic change throughout the story. Static characters- characters that stay the same throughout the story. Boo Radley can be considered a dynamic character in this story because throughout the whole story he is this illusive character who never goes outside or talks to anyone. He was said to have stabbed his own father. At the end of the story he came outside and he saved two kids' lives. Jem is a dynamic character because throughout the story as he gets older he grows wiser. He also goes from being Scouts best friend to wanting her to get out of his business and not really hanging out with her as much anymore. He starts to want his alone time. Atticus is a static character because he doesn't really go through any change. He's intelligent from beginning to end and didn't really learn any big lesson. He did the trial out of pride and he knew he would lose so he wasn't really affected by the events of the story. Dill is a static character because we don't really see much of him in the story. he's there at the beginning then he leaves. He comes back in the middle but leaves again. He isn't in the story enough to be affected by any of it.
13: In the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus said "It's a sin to kill mockingbirds because they don't do anything to harm anybody." The mockingbird is a symbol of innocence in this story. Boo Radley can be considered a mockingbird because he doesn't bother anybody. He never even comes out of his house yet all these kids always bug him and try to get him out of his house. he minds his own business but is still tormented by the neighborhood kids. Tom Robinson is a mockingbird because he lost his trial and was sentenced to death even though he was innocent. He was shot for trying to escape jail even though he didn't belong there in the first place. Scout Finch can be considered a mockingbird just for the fact that she is a child. She demonstrates the innocence of childhood.
14: Literary Criticism Feminist School of literary criticism- Feminist approach is to find suggestions of misogyny in literature. It focuses on differences between men and women, women in power or power relationships between men and women, and the female experience. It points out what women go through in the society the literature is set in. The southern belle stereotype plays a big role in this story. The typical woman in the 1930s was suppose to be a fancy housewife who wore dresses and didn't work and just sat around and gossiped all day. Aunt Alexandra definitely fit the stereotype and wanted Scout to also. "We decided that it would be best for you to have some feminine influence" (Lee 170). Aunt Alexandra said this to Scout when she first arrived to the house. Scout already hates that she's living with them. Aunt Alexandra wants Scout to learn at an early age what a lady should act like. To Scout this means her ways of life are going to slightly change. Aunt Alexandra thinks she is the perfect role model for Scout. At the end they kind of learn to respect eachother even though they don't agree with eachother.
15: New Historicism School of Literary criticism- The truth of a past culture can never be known. The truth is a matter of interpretation on the parts of the writer and the reader. Also, not only does it reflect cultures but it participates in the cultures.
16: Allusions Andrew Jackson (page 1)- U.S. president from 1829-1837, major general during war of 1812. Significance- It is used to create humor in the story. Scout was being a smart alec to Jem saying the reason he really broke his arm was beginning with what Andrew Jackson did. The Crash (page 27)- The stock market crash of 1929 which led to the Great Depression. Significance- It was used to signify different perspectives during the Great Depression and to show how it affected some people differently than others. National Recovery Act (page 336)- Part of FDR's New Deal that involved fixing unemployment. Significance- Used to show how hope had died during the Great Depression. "Disturbance between the North and the South" (page 4)- the civil war Significance- It was referenced as a daily part of a townsperson's life. Scout says that he tells a lot of stories and blames everything on it. Merlin (page 10)- Magician and prophet Significance- To compare Dill to Merlin and to show exactly how good Dill is at coming up with plans.
17: Bullfinch (page 22)- famous collection of greek myths. Significance- it is referenced to indicate how much of a reader Scout has always been. These allusions influence the way the reader understands the novel because they reference people of that era and they show how different events may have impacted the society.
18: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism- Focuses on the author of the text and the text itself with no connection to the author. Focuses on the id- basic desire, the superego- imposed behavior to the desire, and the ego-reality. Atticus said "true courage is when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what." That's a true hero to Atticus. Tom Robinson fit this description because he went into court knowing he was going to lose and fought all the way to the end. Aunt Alexandra fits because she was put into Scout's life to be a feminine influence and she knew Scout wouldn't change her ways but she stuck around to try and teach Scout as much as she could. Boo Radley fits because at the end of the story he knew he'd have to come out of the house to save Jem and Scout even though they never did anything but bug him. The situation was dangerous and he knew he might get in trouble for stabbing Bob Ewell but he figured saving the kids was more important. Harper Lee chose these people because they're people who represent stereotypes and she wanted to show that not everyone who looks a certain stereotype necessarily acts like said stereotype. '