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Visual Literary Analysis for TKAM

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S: To Kill A Mockingbird Visual Analysis

FC: To Kill A Mockingbird Visual Analysis by: Ethan Vaughn

1: Table of Contents | Setting Point of View Conflicts Characterization Symbols Themes Feminism Crit. New Historicism Crit Psychoanalytical Crit. Examples of Crit Citations | pg.1-13 pg.14-27 pg.28-31 pg.32-35 pg.36-39 pg.40-43 pg.44-45 pg.46 pg.47 pg.48-51 pg.52

2: "Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to a red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then: a black dog suffered on a summer's day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shad of the live oaks on the square" (Lee 6). | Setting

3: This quote illustrates the history of the town and the rather hot climate the town is located in. The quote mentions a Hoover cart to tell the reader that this is an American town and the times are around the 1930's, since the carts are named after an American president during the 1930's. It was common for Americans to name things after Hoover during the 30's | cont.

4: Setting | "The Radley Place jutted into a sharp curve beyond our house. Walking south, one faced its porch; the sidewalk turned and ran beside the lot. the house was low, was once white with a deep front porch and green shutters, but had long ago darkened to the color of the slate-gray yard around it. Rain rotted shingles drooped over the eaves of the veranda; oak trees kept the sun away. The remains of a picket drunkenly guarded the front yard- a "swept" yard that was never swept where Johnson grass an rabbit- tobacco grew in abundance" (Lee 10).

5: The quote shows the readers the surroundings the main characters see every day. It also allows the reader some insight to the housing styles of this time period. You tell by the purpose of the oaks that there is a lot of sun in this region and the rain rotted shutters give away either that it rains frequently or that many houses were very old and had withstood rain over many years. | cont.

6: Setting | "The Colored balcony ran along three walls of the courtroom like a second-story veranda, and from it we could see everything. The Jury sat to the left, under long windows. Sunburned , lanky, the all seemed to be all farmers, but this was natural: townsfolk rarely sat on juries, they looked vaguely like dressed-up Cunninghams. At this stage they sat straight and alert.

7: This quotes goes in detail of the courtroom to tell the reader two different things: the culture of the town and the climate. The culture of the town is a southern type town in the early 1930s where farming was of a huge economic need and segregation is very present. Also, the reader can tell the town has a rather warm climate because of the farmers and the sunburns that all the farmers had.

8: The Setting for To Kill a Mockingbird is a rural southern city in the early 1900s. This setting is so important because the reader can easily understand what kind of moral beliefs the common person had and the type of society the characters are living in. The comes especially helpful to the reader when trying to understand why the main conflict of Tom Robinson's case is such a huge issue. It also helps the reader see things better through the eyes of young Scout. | Importance of the setting

10: Scottsboro Trials and the sad story of Emmet Till | The Scottsboro boys were a group of boys who got in a fight with a group of white people and were later accused of raping two girls from the group of white people. Although, it was evident none of the nine boys had done the crime 8 of the nine were sent to their death due to the prejudice jury. Emmett Till was an African American boy who while visiting his aunt and uncle whistled at white girl. This led to his brutal beating and death. Even though the murders would later admit to the crime neither was found guilty.

12: Similarities between Emmett Till, Scottsboro boys, and To Kill A Mockingbird | Similarity #1: Scottsboro boys trial and Emmett Tills trial occurred in the Southern United States. The Tom Robinson trial also took place in the south. | Similarity #2: The Scottsboro boys were represented by two white defending attorneys. Atticus Finch, a white lawyer, defended Tom Robinson.

13: Similarity #3: Both the Scottsboro boys and Emmett Till incident involved white women claiming to have been violated. Tom Robinson was accused a violating a white woman also. | Similarity #4: All the Scottsboro boys and Emmett Till died whether being killed or put in jail until their death. Tom Robinson was put in jail and eventually was killed.

14: Point Of View | Example of Point of View: "My toes touched my trousers, a belt buckle, buttons, something i could not identify, a collar, and a face. A prickly stubble on the face told me it was not Jem's. I smelled stale whiskey" (Lee 352)

15: The Author chose to use first person point of view and use scout a young southern tom-boyish girl as the narrator of the story.

16: Point of View | Reason for Using Scout: The author uses the young girl scout to tell the story because she has very predetermined views on how the world should be so with scout as the narrator the reader gets a more open minded view about the tragedy of the Tom Robinson case and the imperfect southern society of the 1930s.

18: Point of View Perspective Narrative | Dolphus Raymond Chapter 20: I was sitting alone under the oak tree outside the courtroom finishing my afternoon Coca-Cola, when I heard the crying of a little boy. "I don't care one speck. It ain't right, somehow it ain't right to do it that way. Hasn't anybody got any business talking' like that-it makes me sick" the boy said as him and an unknown companion drew nearer.

19: His friend, who must have been a little girl because she replied back in a high pitched mumble that I could hardly make out. She said something about that lawyer man, Atticus being fair to everyone. The boy replied to his friend "That's not what I meant." I knew the struggle he was dealing with. It was one I had faced many times so I decided to stop eavesdropping and become apart of this rather innocent debate. "I know what you mean, boy" I said. They gave me a shocked look as if finally realizing that they had been arguing loud enough for me to hear. I decided to call out again so they could see where I was. "You aren't thin hided, it just makes you sick, doesn't it?" The boy noticed me first over the girl. He was a little short thing. He was dressed in overalls and looked as if he had been crying all day. I figured I might be able to calm him down. | cont.

20: "Come On Round here, son, I got something that'll settle your stomach" I commanded with a soft tone. The boy hurried on over followed reluctantly by Atticus Finch's daughter, Scout, I believe her name was Scout. "Here," I said, giving the boy a sip of my coke, "Take a good sip, it'll guieten you." I had already had my fill of coke and I figured it'd help him more than it would help me, good thing to 'cuz that boy almost drank it all. "Hee hee," I was laughing at how much fun the boy seemed to having with the extra straws I always put in my drink. Scout began to warn her friend, "Dill, you watch out now," she said in a cautious tone. The boy, who must have been named Dill, turned with a grin to his friend and said "Scout its nothing but Coca-Cola." I sat up straighter against the tree knowing that i would have to give the girl an explanation

21: if she was anything like her father. Sure enough, she questioned, "You mean, all you drink in that sack's Coca Cola? Just plain Coca-Cola?" "Yes ma'am," I replied with a nod. Scout seemed to pause for a minute as if to judge me. It was almost comical watching a 7 year judge me like I was giant living and breathing puzzle. "Thats all I drink, most of the time," I said to snap her back to reality. "Then you just pretend you're half-?" she started then she got a worried express seemingly thinking she hurt my feelings. "I beg your pardon, sir. I didn't mean to be-," she said apologetically with a even more cautious tone than before. I laughed to calm her down a little. "Why do you do like you do," she questioned with struggle. | cont.

22: "wh-," I started but I couldn't think of exactly how to tell them. "Oh yes," I said when I finally found the words I wanted to say, "you mean why do I pretend? 'Well, it's very simple, some folks don't like the way I live. Now I could say the hell with 'em, I don't care if they don't like it. I do say I don't care if they don't like it right enough-but I don't say the hell with 'em, see?" I finished only to look up to two even more confused than before faces. They both simultaneously said, "No, sir." This was going to be harder than I imagined. I thought for a moment then began, "I try to give 'em a reason, you see. It helps folks if they can latch onto a reason. "When I come to town, which is seldom.

23: if I weave a little and drink out of this sack, folks can say Dolphus Raymond's in the clutches of whiskey," I paused to make sure they were listening and for a little dramatic effect, "that's why he won't change his ways. He can't help himself, thats why he lives the way he does." "That ain't honest , Mr Raymond, making yourself out badder'n you are already," She contested but I cut her off. "It ain't honest but it's mighty helpful to folks. Secretly, Mrs. Finch, I'm not much of a drinker, but you see they could never, never understand that I live like I do because its the way I want to do live." I must have offended her somewhere fore her face gave me a look of insult. Then suddenly, it changed to a view of fascination. | cont.

24: She asked my why I would even think of trusting her with this secret, to which I replied "Because you're children and you can understand it and because I heard that one-" I turned and looked at Dill, "Things haven't caught up with that one's instinct yet. Let him get a little older and he won't get sick and cry. Maybe things'll strike him as not quite right, say, but he won't cry, not when he gets a few years on him." "Cry about what, Mr Raymond," Dill said trying to compose himself as if to say I'm too manly to cry. "Cry about the simple hell people give other people," I said in almost a preaching tone, "without even thinking. Cry about the hell withe people give colored folks, without even stopping to think that they're people, too"

25: "Atticus says cheatin' a colored man is ten times worse than cheatin' a white man," Scout chimed in a hushed tone, "says it's the worst thing you can do." "I don't reckon it's," I had started to argue back but, I changed my mind, "Miss Jean Louise, you don't know your pa's not a run-of-the-mill man, it'll take a few years for that to sink in. You haven't seen enough of this world yet. You haven't even seen this town, but all you gotta do is step back inside the courthouse." Scout and Dill both looked in wonder at me just letting my words sink in it seemed, Then Scout looked at me then back to Dill. "C'mon, Dill," Scout said in a rushed voice, "you all right now?" | cont.

26: "Yeah," Dill said before he turned to me, "glad t've metcha, Mr Raymond, and thanks for the drink, it was mighty settlin." The two kids turn and ran back to the courthouse. As they ran I said to myself, "maybe this town does still have a little hope for us." It felt great to finally tell somebody my secret, but even better to know the world was gonna be in safe hands.

28: Conflicts | Conflict 1: Atticus Finch is appointed to be Tom Robinsons Lawyer. This is a man vs society external conflict.

29: Conflict 2: Jem Finch is constantly being teased by Mrs. Dubouse. This is a man vs man external conflict. | Conflict 3: Dill is angered and sad by the mean way Heck Tate treats Tom Robinson. This is man vs. man internal conflict.

30: Effect on characters | Conflict 1: Atticus Finch was involved in conflict 1 and he went from being a reserved quiet dad to speaking out more and beginning to show lots of signs of being exhausted and aging. This signs are mostly noticed by Scout and Aunt Alexandra,

31: Conflict 2: Jem is involved in conflict number 2. In the beginning of the book everyone sees Jem as a calm older brother who is mainly reserving himself from everyone due to puberty and after the conflict you can see Jem lose his calm and become very angry and less reserved. This is another result in the change of character Scout notices. | Conflict 3: Dill is the character involved in conflict 3. Dill is always seen as this happy, carefree little boy. Then once Dill witnesses this harsh treatment of Tom Robinson, he just breaks down becoming sad and worried about the world around him. This change is mainly picked up on by the reader.

32: Dynamic and | Dynamic Character 1: Jem Finch Jem Finch at the beginning of the story is a very brotherly type of boy who spends time with his family. Then by the end of the story Jem is a very quiet and reserved boy. Scout even comments on his new behavior stating, " He was difficult to live with, inconsistent and moody" (Lee 153).

33: Static Characters | Dynamic Character 2: Atticus Finch Atticus at the beginning of the story is seen to his children as a quiet man who is always busy reading, but by the end of the story he is seen as a very tired man who is very tied up in his work. Scout mentions in a passage half way through the book she can finally see the age on his face.

34: Dynamic and | Static Character 1: Aunt Alexandra Aunt Alexandra throughout the whole story is a proper stereotypical southern women and she keeps this image. Even when she breaks down, she regains her composure. Scout mentions that "After all, if Aunty could be a lady at a time like this, so could I" (Lee 318).

35: Static Characters | Static Character 2: Calpurnia Calpurnia is told through Scout's eyes to be a very helpful women who is kind to everyone in the family. Although Scout believes she is mean at first, Calpurnia develops a nice image early in the story and keeps it. Atticus talks about how important her is in keeping the family together .

36: Symbols | Significance of To Kill a Mockingbird Title: The title To Kill A Mockingbird is significance because it gives an insight in to the story and represents the biggest them from the story. A mockingbird in the story symbolizes innocence. The title refers to a type of innocence that you see in Scout and Tom Robinson from the book. We see their innocence being "killed" off when Tom is framed even though he didn't do anything and when scout realizes how unjust the world is. This relates to the theme that you cant harm something that helps you such as a mockingbird, Tom or Scout.

37: The Three Mockingbirds | Boo Radley: He is seen in the book as a mysterious evil character and in the end he turns out to be this innocent man who chooses to stay inside. Boo helps save Jem and Scout from Bob Ewell. He shows he is a mockingbird because all he does is help others and not harm anyone. | Tom Robinson: Tom is a productive, young man with a family. Tom can be seen as a mockingbird because he is a hardworking, honest man whose innocence is challenged because of false accusations. Although he is innocent, this is mockingbird is killed. | cont.

38: The Three Mockingbirds | Scout: Scout is a young little girl who is still learning her way in the world. She is the easiest to see as a "mockingbird" because she is naive about the world. When you combine this with how open minded she is since she is only six she can obviously been seen as a mockingbird.

40: Themes | Theme #1: Children often see the injustices in the world before adults do. "Well, Dill, after all he is just a Negro." I don't care one speck. It ain't right, somehow it ain't right to do 'em that way. hasn't anybody got any business talkin' like that. It just makes me sick". (Lee 266). In this quote the reader can see how Dill senses the unfair treatment the the prosecuting attorney. This presents to the reader that the first one to notice how wrong the treatment of African Americans is just a little boy who is still learning about the world. Since, adults have already been taught how people should treat each other they don't see the things wrong with how they act but children, such as Dill, do.

41: Theme #2: It is wrong to harm those who only serve a good purpose. "Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit 'em but remember its a sin to kill a mockingbird" (Lee 119). This quote from Atticus is not only talking about the actual birds but he is also trying to teach his kids a life lesson. Mockingbirds sing for the people and don't harm any one so it is wrong to harm them. This same theme becomes present when Tom Robinson's innocence and himself are killed. Since Tom was harmed it causes this big mess that would have been fine if they left this helpful "mockingbird" alone. | Cont.

42: Themes | Theme #3: You never fully understand someone until you walk around in their shoes. "First of all, he said, If you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you'll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand someone until you consider things from his point of view-" "Sir" "-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it" (Lee 39). This same theme appears later in the story when Atticus wants Jem to see how Bob Ewell feels. This theme really is used to tell people that the actions of others are justified by them but we don't understand that until we walk in their shoes.

44: Feminism | Schools of Criticism | The feminist school of criticism is a method of focusing criticism on the role of women in stories and how they are treated. This is used when analyzing literature by observing the effect women have on society, viewing their equality among men, and the roles they fulfill. | One example of this type of criticism can be found when you look at the role Calprunia plays in To Kill a Mockingbird. "Cal", as she is called, is a middle aged black women who is seen as a maid and is completely unequal even to other women such as, Aunt Alexandra. The only time she is recognizes is when Atticus states how important she is to the family showing she has some effect on the world.

46: New Historicism | The New Historicism school of literary criticism is a view that history is biased and the text written is biased based on the authors opinion and the most dominant view of history told to us. Is is used by reviewing the authors past and the events past to determine the degree of how biased it is. It also brings out the "facts" found in the story. | Activity with New Historicism in To Kill a Mockingbird: 1. The book shows the prejudice attitudes common to the 1930s such as unfair treatment of African Americans and unfair trials. 2. The novel talks about the segregation among the whites and blacks. Also it talks about an unfair trial that was in the 1950's. 3. The story features a little bit of the change in the attitude towards African Americans that is seen in the 1960's

47: Psychoanalytical | The psychoanalytical school of literary criticism is viewing the piece of work solely as its own entity and a reflection of the authors subconscious. It is used by looking at the subconscious actions of every character and use them as a reflection of the author. | cont.

48: Psychoanalytical | Activity with Psychoanalytical criticism in To Kill a Mockingbird: All three of the characters Atticus calls heroes share the same quality of standing up for what they believe in even though society thinks the opposite. This shows that Harper Lee had a fondness for those who did that or she was a firm believer in it.

49: Examples of the 3 schools of Literary criticism | Feminism: "Alexandra, Calpurnia's not leaving this house until she wants to. You may think other wise but, I couldn't have got along without her all these years."(Lee 182) Here is where Atticus recognizes the importance of this woman in his life. | New Historicism: "For a number of reasons, Atticus said. The main one is if I didn't I couldn't hold up my head in town, I couldn't represent this country in the legislature,and I couldn't even tell you or Jem not to do something again." (Lee 100) this quote from Atticus shows the change in thoughts towards the African Americans that history tells us occurred around this time period. | Cont.

50: More Examples of Literary Criticism | Psychoanalytical: "You know, its a funny thing about Braxton, Atticus said. He despises Negroes, wont have one near him" (Lee 209). This quote is said by Atticus to show the reader that Braxton was willing to overcome his hatred of African Americans to help Atticus when the mob came for Tom. This can be used to infer the authors value for doing what is right.

52: Citations | Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird . New York: Warner, 1982 . Print.

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