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Volcanoes and Earthquakes

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FC: Volcanoes and Earthquakes and Their Characteristics by Reilly Winn

1: Volcanoes

2: Boundaries | Volcanoes are found on boundaries with certain characteristics ~Subduction Zones -A spot where two lithospheric plates go over one another -They are convergent -An example would be the Pacific Ring of Fire ~Mid-ocean Ridges -They allow for magma to rise to the surface -They are divergent ~Hot-spots -Hot-spots rise through lithospheric plates -They become areas of active volcanism

3: Measurements | Three ways of measuring a volcano -Temperature ~Surface temperatures are measured. ~Lava temperatures can also be measured. -Seismic Waves ~Seismographs and seismograms are used ~Seismometers are also used -Computer Modeling ~Computers can help scientists predict the future of volcanoes more easily

4: Types of Volcanoes | There are 3 main types of volcanoes. 1. Shield cones ~Shield cones have quiet lava explosions. ~Also, they are made up of layers of lava. ~These volcanoes have gently sloping sides. 2. Cinder Cones ~These volcanoes are made up of layers of cinders. ~They have explosive lava eruptions. ~Also, hey have steeping slopes. 3. Composite Cones- ~They have high sides. ~These cones are made up of alternating layers of lava and cinder. ~Whichever layer has dominance dictates the type of explosion.

5: Lava | Lava is hot molten rock erupted from a volcano or fissure. ~Flows can reach speeds of 30 kilometers per hour. ~Anything that is in the way of a lava flow is destroyed. Eventually it is buried and burned underneath the flow.

6: Pyroclastic Materials | Altogether there are five different pyroclastic materials. 1. Volcanic Blocks ~The size can be as big as a house. ~The blocks are blasted from a fissure. 2. Volcanic Bombs ~They are sized as round/spindle clots. ~These are thrown form the volcano. 3. Lapilli ~They are about 64mm. ~Lapilli fall near the vent. 4. Volcanic Dust ~Volcanic dust is about 25mm. ~The dust settles on land far from the volcano. 5. Volcanic Ash ~This is the smallest at about 2mm. ~The ash settles on land far from the volcano like the volcanic dust.

7: Magma | Magma is molten rock from deep within the earth. The characteristics of magma are as follows. Caldera is a large basin shaped chamber created when the magma chamber empties.Volcanism is any activity that includes the movement of magma.Liquid rock is solid rock that melts. A crater pit is a funnel shaped vent that becomes wider when magma melts and breaks down walls.Finally, a vent is an opening which molten rock flows through and onto the surface.

8: A super volcano is a volcano capable of producing a volcanic eruption with an ejecta volume greater than 1000km>3. These volcanoes haven't occurred for years but there is still a modern day one in Yellowstone Park. These volcanoes are capable of mass destruction. The last time a volcano this large went off was about 71,000 years ago. Scientists estimate that only about 5,000 humans survived. The Yellowstone Park super volcano was set to go off every 600,000 years. It has been 630,000 years since its last eruption. | Super Volcanoes

11: Earthquakes

12: Layers | There are two main layers of the earth that contribute to earthquakes. 1. Lithosphere ~This is the outer shell of the earth otherwise known as the crust. Includes the rigid upper mantle. 2. Asthenosphere ~The asthenosphere is the mantle below the lithosphere. This layer is made of slowly flowing solid rock.

13: Waves | Waves can come at different speeds at different time but the three to focus on are: 1. P-waves ~These waves are the fastest of the three. ~They can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. 2. S-waves ~S-waves are slower than P-waves. ~They can only travel through solids. 3. L-waves ~These are the slowest of the waves. ~L-waves travel over earth's surface in a pattern that looks like ocean waves.

14: The scales to measure an earthquake have improved drastically and they are known as: 1. Richter Scale ~The Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake. ~It can measure from any distance. 2. Mercalli Scale ~This scale measures the intensity of an earthquake. ~It also measures the effects the earthquake has. | Measurements

15: The structure of an earthquake is made up of 2 main parts: 1. Focus ~This is the area along a fault where the earthquake happens. ~Slippage occurs along the fault first. 2. Epicenter ~This is the area directly above the focus. ~Epicenters are the point on ground level of the earthquake. | Structure

16: There are two types of zones in which are connected with earthquakes: 1. Seismic Gaps ~This is a place on earth where there have been no major earthquakes for thirty years. ~A seismic gap is where a fault is locked in place. 2. Shadow Zones ~Shadow zones have only P-waves go through them. ~In this zone there are no seismic waves from the earthquake. | Zones

17: The aftermath of earthquakes can be very destructive, they include things such as: 1. Aftershock ~This is the tremor that follows an earthquake. ~Aftershocks are smaller than earthquakes but can still cause damage. 2. Tsunami ~Tsunamis are giant ocean waves that follow earthquakes. ~They normally happen when the fault effected is under water. | Aftermath

18: Retrieved from http://www.geologycafe.com/images/waves_earthquake.jpg asthenosphere and lithosphere - Bing Images. (n.d.). retrievehttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=asthenosphere+and+lithosphere&qs=IM&form=QBIR&pq=asthenosphere+and+&sc=8-18&sp=1&sk=#view=detail&id=DA7B1BE2759E2549C1458300F57CD1CE2163D5B3&selectedIndex=13 cotalo | FT Photo Diary. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blogs.ft.com/photo-diary/tag/cotalo/ CVO Website - Seismometers, Seismographs, Seismographs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/Seismicity/description_seismic_monitoring.html definition of magma - Bing Images. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=definition+of+magma&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=2BBECCB3EF939DB20B277B70D0A8BC016E89885A&selectedIndex=1 Difference Between Earthquake Focus and the Epicenter? | Earthquakes and Plates. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://earthquakesandplates.wordpress.com/2008/05/12/difference-between-earthquake-focus-and-the-epicenter/ Earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.disaster-survival-resources.com/earthquake.html The Ring of Fire- EnchantedLearning.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/ringoffire/ Surface temperature measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawai?i. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377027301002578 UC Santa Barbara Geography / News & Events / Department News. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/events/department-news/1352/supervolcano-eruption-mystery-solved/ | Bibliography

19: Facts about the New Madrid Seismic Zone - DNR. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dnr.mo.gov/geology/geosrv/geores/techbulletin1.htm How Volcanoes Work - Subduction zone volcanism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/subducvolc_page.html HowStuffWorks "Earthquake Pictures". (n.d.). Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake-pictures.htm Inner Earth Interpreter. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://iei.allshookup.org/ Largest Earthquake Recorded - World's Biggest Earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://geology.com/records/largest-earthquake/ Largest Earthquake Recorded - World's Biggest Earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://geology.com/records/largest-earthquake Largest Earthquakes in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/10_largest_us.php Lava - Earth Facts and Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.basicplanet.com/lava/ Mercalli intensity scale. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Mercalli_intensity_scale.html National Paranormal Association: Tsunami survivors in Japan haunted by ghosts turn to exorcists. (video). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nationalparanormalassociation.blogspot.com/2013/03/tsunami-survivors-in-japan-haunted-by.html peHUB Benchmark Capital. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pehub.com/tag/benchmark-capital/ Real world engineering: Using the NXT for earthquake simulation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.legoengineering.com/real-world-engineering-using-the-nxt-for-earthquake-simulation/

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