FC: Volcanoes | By: Becca Cupples
1: Volcano A vent in earth's crust in which lava, steam, ashes, etc., are expelled, either continuously or at irregular intervals. | Types of Volcanoes: | Composite: Lava- Mafic and Felsic Shape- very tall and steep Formed- quiet lava to explosive Structure- alternate layers of cinders and lava Ex: Mount Fuji, Mount Rainier, etc. | Shield: Lava- Mafic Shape- broad base/sloping sides Formed- quiet lava explosions Structure- layers of lava Ex: Hawaiian islands, Iceland, etc. | Cinder: Lava- Felsic Shape- steep slopes/few hundred meters high Formed- explosive eruptions Structure- layers of cinders Ex: Sunset Crater, etc.
2: Anatomy of a Volcano | A crater is the place where magma turns into lava. | The magma below earth's surface is stored in the magma chamber. | A vent is an opening at earths surface where the magma reaches the air. | Viscosity is any substances resistance to flow. | Lava is a hot molten, or semifluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this. | Triangulation -Epicenters are found this way. -It locates quakes by using seismic waves on earth, or by a radio beacon.
3: Pyroclastic Particle | Another name for Pyroclastic Particles is Tephra. Tephra: rock fragments and particles ejected by a volcanic eruption. | Types | Tephra Size Destination | Volcanic ash Volcanic dust Lapilli Volcanic bombs Volcanic blocks | Less than 2mm Less than 0.25mm Less than 64mm More than 64mm More than 64mm | Land surrounding volcano Upper atmosphere Near vent Erupting volcano Erupting volcano
4: Magma | Magma is another name for lava when it reaches the atmosphere. | Types of lava Mafic: Felsic: Color- dark Color- Light Composition- Magnesium & Iron Composition- melted Crust- oceanic continental crust Temperature- very hot Crust- continental Viscosity- Pahoehoe Temperature- cooler Sound- quiet Viscosity- pillow lava Sound- loud | Pahoehoe lava: A smooth, billowy, or ropey type of surface. | Pillow lava: Pillow-like structure that is formed under water. | AA lava: Rough, jagged, spinose, and generally clinky surface. | Felsic lava forms at plate boundaries and is identified by its color and silica content.
5: Boundaries | DIVERGENT | CONVERGENT | Allows most magma to rise to the surface and turn into lava. | Mid-ocean ridge, ocean to ocean. Examples where its found: Hawaiian islands and Island. | Hot-spots: plates shift, but the hot spots don't. | Forms in the lithospheric phase. Example: the Pacific Ring Of Fire | Subduction, continent to ocean.
6: Famous Volcanoes | Krakatoa | Mount St. Helens | Mount Tambora | Mauna Loa | Active stratovolcano in Skamania County, Washington. Segment of the Ring Of Fire. | Stratovolcano on the island of Sumbawa. One of the tallest peaks in Indonesian archipelago. | Volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Explosions heard to be loudest in history. | 1 of 5 volcanoes that form Hawaii. Largest subaerial volcano in mass and volume.
8: Body waves: | Surface waves: | Primary waves Motion: horizontal Speed: fastest | Secondary waves Motion: medium Speed: medium | Love waves Motion: horizontal Speed: slower than body waves but faster than Rayleigh waves. | Rayleigh waves Motion: longitudinal & transverse Speed: slightly less than shear waves
9: Measuring momentum/magnitude | Richter Scale: | Mercalli Scale: | Scale is a 1-10 logarithmic scale. This measures the magnitude of an earthquake. Example- A 5.5-6.0 would make slight damage to buildings and other structures. | Scale is a 1-12 roman numeral scale. This measures the intensity of an earthquake. Example- A 5.0-6.0 would be felt bu everyone and would be hard to stand. Heavy furniture moved and plaster falls. Chimney damaged.
10: Anatomy of an Earthquake | Shadow zones: Location on earths surface where no seismic waves or only P waves are detected. Focus and Epicenter: Focus is the area along the fault where the slippage first occurs. The Epicenter is the point on the earths surface directly above the focus. Triangulation: Epicenters are found this way. Triangulation locates quakes by using seismic waves or radio beacons on earth.
11: Aftershock- Major earthquakes are usually followed by a series of these smaller tremores Seismic gap- zones of immobile rock Lithosphere- thin outer shell of earth consisting of the crust and the rigid upper mantle. Asthenosphere- zone of mantle beneath the Lithosphere that consists of slowly moving solid rocks. Seismic wave- a vibration that travels through Earth's crust. Tsunami- a major earthquake with an epicenter on the ocean floor.
12: Safety precautions | If an earthquake would happen right now, these are a few things you should/can do. | -Stay as calm as possible -Protect yourself from flying objects -Stand in doorways -Crouch under objects -Stay away from breakable objects -Go outside as soon as possible | Today, some of the following are used to detect quakes and help with earthquake safety. | -Above ground buildings -Shock absorbers -Dampers
13: Famous earthquakes | Great Alaska Largest quake on U.S. soil. Magnitude- 9.2 | Chile Earthquake Largest quake on earth to this day. Magnitude- 9.5 | San Fransisco Deadliest earthquake in U.S. history. Deaths- over 3,000 | China, Shansi Deadliest quake in worlds history. Deaths- over 830,000
14: Super volcanoes | Any volcano capable of producing an eruption with an ejecta of a volume greater than 1,000 km cubed. | A super volcano can occur when magma in the mantle rises into the crust from a hotspot, but is unable to break through the crust OR they can occur at convergent plate boundaries. | An example of a super volcano would be Yellowstone Caldera (below).
15: Works cited/bibliography | Decker, Robert W. "Volcanoes Related to Plate Boundaries." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. "Earthquake Glossary - Seismic Wave." Earthquake Glossary - Seismic Wave. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. "Famous Earthquakes In History." Essortment. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. "Measuring the Size of an Earthquake." Measuring the Size of an Earthquake. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014. "National Geographic Society." National Geographic Channel. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. Suddath, Claire. "Top 10 Famous Volcanoes." Time. Time Inc., 31 Aug. 2010. Web. 10 Apr. 2014. "SuperVolcanoes." SuperVolcanoes. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. "Volcano Vocabulary List & Definitions." Volcano Vocabulary List & Definitions. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. "Volcanoes." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.