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Who's Who, What's What, Where's Where

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1: WHO'S WHO: Important people in Chinese History: Confucius Laotzu Li Shimin Shi Huangdi Sun Yat Sen WHAT'S WHAT: Things important in Chinese History: Arts Festivals Foods (Traditional Chinese Cuisine) Education Wild life WHERE'S WHERE: Places in China important in Chinese History: Beijing Dunhuang (Silk Road) Great China Wall Shanghai Yangtze River

2: WHO'S WHO: People important in Chinese History

3: Confucius: He was a great Chinese Philosopher who created Confucianism. He started out as a politician, but his ideas failed because they did not like material things, which is what royalty wanted to be royalty for. He later becomes a teacher of Confucianism. In his teaching, he placed the family and the good of society above the interests of the individual.

4: Lao Tzu: Father of Taoism According to legend Lao Tzu was keeper of the archives at the imperial court. When he was eighty years old he set out for the western border of China, toward what is now Tibet, saddened and disillusioned that men were unwilling to follow the path to natural goodness. At the border (Hank Pass) a guard, Yin Xi, asked Lao Tsu to record his teachings before he left. He then composed in 5,000 characters the Tao Te Ching (The Way and Its Power)

5: Li Shimin - Emperor Taizong of Tang: As a founding father of the Tang Dynasty he ruled the Country in an open minded and humane manner. He was ambitious, intelligent, adroit and diligent. Li Shimin would become Emperor Taizong, co-founder with his father of the Tang Dynasty, ruling from 629 to 649.

6: Shi Huangdi: He was the emperor of the Qin Dynasty. He extended Chinese power to the south and west. Using forced labor, he built the Great Wall. Hundreds and thousands of peasants labored under brutal conditions to build the Great Wall.

7: Sun Yat - Sen: Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese revolutionary and first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"), and the "forerunner of democratic revolution in the people's republic of China. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Quing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile.

8: WHAT'S WHAT Things important in Chinese History:

9: The Chinese Arts It is common knowledge that China has a long and glorious history in both arts and traditional crafts. These are just two of the many jewels in China's over five thousand-year culture. Of all the Chinese arts and crafts, the most representative are Bronze Vessels, folk toys, embroidery, calligraphy, music, painting, cloisonne, jade, lacquer ware, paper-cuttings, porcelain, pottery, seals and silk. Fun Fact: China Silk: A silkworm produces 1000 meters (3280feet) of silk thread in it's lifespan of just 28 days and is of great value.

10: Festivals: Due to the long history and glorious culture of China, the Chinese people celebrate a great many festivals. These include, New Year's Day, Lantern Festival, Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, May Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid Autumn Festival and National Day. One of these events, called Lantern Festival, falls on the 15th day of the first lunar month. Lantern Festival originated during the Han Dynasty when Buddhism flourished. So in order to popularize Buddhism, one of the emperors gave an order to light lanterns in the imperial place to worship and show respect for Buddha on the 15th day of the first lunar moon. Today, this event is celebrate with the watching of lanterns and eating stuffed rice balls. Lantern Festival is regarded as the most recreational among all the Chinese Festivals and shows the appreciation of the full moon and family reunion.

11: Food (Traditional Chinese Cuisine) Chinese cuisine appears various features in different periods and regions. Generally speaking, Chinese people mainly live on the five common cereals and vegetable and added by a small supply of meat. This eating habit is formed by the mode of production which is centered by agriculture. Common Chinese cuisine consists of: Bean sprouts,cabbage,carrots,cucumber, duck,tofu,watercress,beef,bamboo,crab, chicken,ginger,eggs,mushrooms,rice,sesame oil, and a variety of fish. Food is usually prepared with methods of pouching, boiling, steaming, roasting, deep frying and stir frying. China is the hometown of chopsticks. In ancient times, chopsticks were called Zhu. At that time, our ancestors liked to steam and boil food. It was difficult for them to use spoons to dip vegetables in the soup. So they used chopsticks to nip food, thus it became the most convenient tableware in their lives. | A common table manner is expected when eating. Before your meal, the host may offer some words of greeting. Guests should not start to eat until the host says, "Please enjoy yourself."

12: Education: Shortly after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese government took educations as a matter of primary importance, and made enhancing the cultural quality of the people the basis of the construction of the nation. Before 1949, China had a population of nearly 500 million, of whom 80 percent were illiterate. Today, the social pressure on Chinese children to perform well in school is overwhelming not only their futures, but the futures of their parents depend on it. Excellent performance in school is typically the only expectation on the Zhong Kao(senior middle school exam) determines how much,if anything the parents will have to pay to send their child to a key senior middle school.

13: Education continued: These students must score at the very top of their class or they will not qualify for the best universities. Because of this high standard, suicide is the leading cause of death among China's young adults aged 18 to 35, because of the academic pressure society expects of them.

14: Wildlife of China: China is one of the countries with the greatest diversity of wildife in the world. There are more than 4,400 species of vertebrates, more than 10 percent of the world's total. There are nearly 500 animal species. 1,189 species of birds, more than 320 species of reptiles and 210 species of amphibians. Wildlife peculiar to China includes such well-know animals as the Giant Panda, golden-haired monkey, South China tiger, White-flag dolphin, red-crowned crane, totaling more than 100 species. Wolong National Reserve is located in the east of Mt. Qionglai, a 3-hour drive from Chengdu, is a reserve of 429,200 acres. Begun in 1963, Wolong National Reseve is the earliest largest and best know Panda reserve in China.

15: WHERE'S WHERE: Important Places in Chinese History

16: Beijing: Some half a million years ago, Peking man lived in Zhoukoudian, in the southwestern suburbs of Beijing. The fossil remains of Peking man, his stone tools, and evidence of use of fire, as well as later tools of 18,000 year ago, are the earliest cultural relics on record in China today. Beijing is a large City located in northern China. It is also China's capital city. Beijing has a large population at 22,000,000. It is also a major transportation hub, a political and cultural center of China and was host to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Beijing is one of the most developed and industrial areas of China and it was one of the first post-industrial cities to emerge in China.

17: Beijing continued: Finance and tourism is a major industry in Beijing. Beijing is a popular tourist destination within China. Many historical architectural sites are located here. For example, The Great Wall of China, The Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square are all located in Beijing.

18: Dunhuang (Silk Road) It was Europeans who re-opened the road in their search for the ancient Silk Road cities. It happened in the latter part of the last century. Dunhuang lies at the western end of the Gansu Corridor, called Hexi Zoulang. The name Dunhuang originally meant "prospering flourishing" Its position at the intersection of two trade routes was what made Dunhuang flourish. The coming and going of horse and camel carried new thoughts, ideas , and science to the east and west.

19: Great Wall of China: The Great Wall of China is the world's longest wall and biggest ancient architecture. It is 5,000 kilometers long. Construction of the Great Wall begun by feudal warlords in the 7th century BC. During the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) lengths of the Great Wall were joined together (alongside the Union of China). During 206BC-1368AD, extension and rebuilding of the wall was done to protect northern borders of the Chinese Empire from invaders. The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) is when the Great Wall reached its greatest extent. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) the last Chinese dynasty was ushered in by a beach of the Great Wall at Shanhai Pass by Manchu invaders. Great wall maintenance ceased for more than 3 centuries.

20: Shanghai: Shanghai, literally "Above the Sea\, is a port city on the Huang Pu River, where the Yangtze River empties into the East China Sea. Originally a fishing and textiles town, the city gained its identity after it was opened to foreign powers by the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. The British, French, Americans, Germans, and Russians moved in, setting up their Western style banks, Mansions and trading houses, leaving a permanent architectural legacy. The city flourished as a cosmopolitan and thriving commercial and financial center. | Shanghai is a a fun city to tour. There are building with different architectures, known as the Bund. The buildings are lit up at night in lavender lighting and mansions, garden estates, clubs and cathedrals are scattered throughout the city to explore. Shanghai is also the best city in China for dining and shopping.

21: Yangtze River: The Yangtze River is one of the two main rivers in China. The large land and ship battle of Red Cliffs took place at Wahun during the Three Kingdoms era. Wahun is China's 10th largest city, where part of the big Yangtze River lies. It is one of the most important river for agriculture, industry, and inland travel.

22: SOURCE PAGE: World Cultures: A Global Mosaic (Book Source)

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