BC: Special thanks to my brother Carlos Herrera for helping me find organisms for my photos and giving me permission to photograph his colony of ants. Also special thanks to my aunt for helping me take pictures. I give credit to "city pets" for allowing me to photograph their marine organisms..... | THANKS FOR READING :)
FC: AP Biology Project | "Biology Collection" | By: Keren Herrera
1: No living things were harmed in the making of this Mix Book | follow me!
3: Angiosperm | Being the largest division of group among plants, the angiosperms are flowering plants. They develop the seeds inside the flower's ovary. In this picture you can see the bright yellow flowers of the plant. The flowers will eventually release their seeds to produce another plant. In other types of Angiosperms, the flower becomes a visible fruit that keeps the seed.
4: Fleshy Fruit with Seed | The apple is thick-fleshed and has a smooth skin. The picture clearly shows the seeds inside the apple and also the flesh surrounding the seeds.
5: Dry Fruit with Seed | This fruit is almost the opposite of the apple. As shown in the picture, the seeds are inside a pod which is not smooth to the touch. The seeds aren't surrounded by any flesh, but instead kept in small compartments.
6: Fibrous Carbohydrate | These carbohydrates are complex. Mostly found in vegetables, they differ from other carbohydrates in that they take longer to digest. Fibrous carbohydrates can also be found in legumes and whole grains. In the pictures there are two types of sources of fibrous carbohydrates: vegetables and legumes
7: Amylase | Produced by the salivary glands, amylase is an enzyme that helps in the breakdown of starch to sugar. It is mostly present in human saliva, and begins the first step of digestion. Though it can also be found in the pancreas, this picture shows amylase through the saliva in the tongue.
8: Conifer Leaf | Conifer trees produce cones, and have green, needle-like leaves. These needles have some characteristics in common which include: thick cuticles, sunken stomates, and a reduced surface area. Here in this photo we can see an example of the needle-like structure of the conifer leaf.
9: Dicot Plant with Flower & leaf | DIcot plants can be categorized by several factors. They contain two cotyledons (seed leaf), they have netlike leaves, they have a ringed array of vascular bundles on their stem, and the flowers' petals are usually in fours or fives. In this example we can see a sunflower as an example of a Dicot plant
10: Frond | Fronds are leafs with many divisions. They are finely divided like the pictures shown here. Both of these leaves show many divisions. These types of leaves are most common in palms and ferns.
11: Herbaceous Stem | Present in Herbaceous plants. The stem is green, soft and shows no sign of wood. As in this picture, we can see that all of the stem is green, it was soft to the touch and there was no visible sign of a woody stem.
12: Thorn | Thorns are sharp projections in plants. They are as a defensive system by the plant and are more commonly seen as a modified stem. As we see in this plant, its stem has modified by forming small thorns along its branches.
13: Tendril | Present in climbing plants, the tendril is a thread-like organ of the plant. It supports the plant by growing in a spiral form and attaching itself to other bodies. In this picture we can see the tendril starting to grow around the trunk of a tree.
14: Woody Stem | A woody stem is the opposite of a herbaceous stem. It is hard and rough to the touch and shows almost no sign of a green pliable stem. It is covered by bark and grows every year unlike the herbaceous stem plants which have to be planted annually. The Cambium in the stem makes it grow in width and can make the stem last several years. Like in this picture we can see a tree more than 2 years old with a hard, woody stem
15: Autotroph | Also known as the primary consumers, autotrophs do not have to consume other organisms to produce energy. They may use either photosynthesis or oxidation to obtain their nutrients. In this photograph grass is the autotroph. It uses sunlight during photosynthesis to grow, and it is eaten by heterotrophs | yay photosynthesis!!
16: Female Pine Cone | Pine cones are used by conifers through meiosis to reproduce. Male pine cones contain their gametophytes in pollen grains and release it to the wind until it lands in a female pine cone. The cone will then close and in a year it will form a pollen tube in the female gametophyte. Then the pollen grain fuses with the egg cell and produces the next sporophyte. This sporophyte will then become a seed and be transported by the wind and start another tree. In this picture we can see a female pine cone ready to release its seeds.
17: Bryophyte | Bryophytes are all land plants who don't have any vascular tissue. They are the most simplest forms of plant life found on earth They have enclosed reproductive systems and produce neither flowers nor seeds. Even though they don't have the complex tissue organization as other plants, they still show diverse forms and ecology. Bryophytes mostly refer to mosses, hornworts, and liveworts. In this picture we can see a Moss growing on the bottom of a tree.
18: Chlorophyta | With more 9,000 species chlorophyta is the primitive subkingdom of the plant kingdom. Also known as green algae, it has dominated the oceans for more than 700 million years, and still continues to thrive in almost any underwater environment. Like in this Aquarium glass, algae is part of the small of ecosystem of animals living here.
19: Deciduous Leaf | The word deciduous means "tending to fall off". Unlike the evergreen trees who loose their leaves continuously, deciduous trees loose their leaves all at once and once per year. In this picture we can see an example of a deciduous tree: An oak tree with some immature acorns.
20: Endosperm | Produced by most flowering plants,the endosperm is crucial for the development of the seedling. It consists of starch, oil and proteins crucial to start growth and development of the embryo plant. Here we can see a bean seed split in half so that the embryo and the surrounding endosperm is visible
21: Flower Ovary | The ovary is an enlarged portion of the pistil of a female flower. The ovary is its reproductive organ. It holds the ovules and is located right below the connection of the petals and the sepal. Once the pollen lands on the stigma of the flower, it will travel down to the ovary where one individual ovule is created for each pollen grain. In this example we can see a flower split in half and the arrow pointing at the ovary.
22: Pollen | Pollen is a fine dust of microspores that appears on flowering plants. Each pollen grain has a different body and shape. It is produced by a different male apparatus and then transported by water, wind, or insects. In this magnified picture of a flower we can see the fine & golden pollen dust.
23: Pteridophyte | Pteridophyte refers to the lower vascular plants that reproduce by spores. Most of these plants include ferns who have dominated the Paleozoic era. The fern's leaves are pinnate and have small leaflets on a frond. As shown in the picture we can see the common leaf of a fern with the frond structure.
24: Spore | The gametophyte of the fern contains both sexes and is referred to as a prothallium. This prothallium develops in the spores of the fern which are located under its fronds. Here, the spores who are responsible for the asexual reproduction of the fern, can be seen very closely.
25: Xerophytes | Xerophytes are plants adapted to the dry and hot weather of deserts. They have developed a way to store water and prevent its loss. Their thick, fleshy leaves, their waxy coating and ability to drop leaves in dry periods allow these plants to thrive in very dry habitats. Photographed here is an example of a cactus, exhibiting its sharp spines.
27: Arthropod | The arthropoda phylum is the largest of the animal kingdom and the most successful since they can thrive in almost every habitat. Some of its members include lobsters, spiders, crabs and centipedes. Some of the characteristics of these animals include: segmented bodies, jointed appendages, hard exoskeleton, complex nervous system with a brain, complex respiratory system, and a complex life cycle. Here I have included a photo of spider, which is a member of the Arthropods
28: Lepidoptera | lepidoptera, one of the most recognizable insects, refers to butterflies and moths. They are characterized by the scales that cover their bodies and wings. They also have a proboscis which is the elongated tongue lepidoptera members posses to feed and suck on flowers. Here I have photographed a butterfly, a member of the Lepidoptera.
29: Chitin | Chitin is a protein crucial to the development of the exoskeleton found in all arthropods. It is a polysaccharide which consists of units of glucosamine. Photographed here are exoskeletons of cicadas which are high in chitin protein
30: Annelid | Annelids, also called segmented worms, are invertebrates characterized by: having a body cavity (coelom), movable bristles, and a body divided in annulations. In this photo I show an earth worm member of the Annelid group.
31: Insect | Insects are the largest members of the animal kingdom. they consist of segmented bodies divided in 3 major sections: head, three-segmented thorax, and the segmented abdomen. They also posses of a hard exoskeleton. In this picture I have photographed two types of insects: a cicada, and a beetle.
32: Echinoderm | Appearing first in the Cambrian period, echinoderms are characterized by their skin which is hard and spiny. They are all marine animals also recognized as "sea stars". They have an endoskeleton that has calcareous plates, and a water vascular system that powers their feet. In this picture, I have provided an example of a starfish (seen from the bottom) and its feet and anus is clearly visible.
33: Ectotherm | Ectotherms, also known as cold-blooded animals, depend on external surfaces to regulate their body temperature.They consist of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates. They usually don't thrive in cold habitats and can even become inactive if the weather becomes too cold. That is why their body temperature is almost the same as their surroundings. Here I have photographed a small python snake who relies on a heated lamp to regulate its temperature
34: Exoskeleton | The Exoskeleton is present in all arthropods. It is mostly made up of chitin and functions as protection, attachment for muscles, locomotion, and inhibitor of dessication. It is composed of a waxy layer that is water resistant placed over flexible layers. It also contains small breathing holes for the animal. In this picture we can see a crayfish with its exoskeleton.
35: Pollinator | Pollination is an extremely important process for all flowering plants. I can confidently say that we wouldn't exist without pollinators. Most pollinators include bees and wasps. They help transfer the pollen from the anthers of the flower to the stigma. In this photo I show an example of a pollinator by photographing a male bee who had been recently pollinating flowers and had stopped for a short break.
36: Genetically Modified Organism | Genetically modified organisms are any form of living things were its genes have been modified by genetic engineering techniques. One of this techniques is known as the recombinant DNA technology were DNA molecules are grabbed from other sources and put together to form a new set of genes. For this term, I provided a photograph of a Glow Tetra fish. Its color isn't produced naturally by nature, but modified by scientists to give the fish its highlighter color
37: Mutualism | Mutualism is a relationship between two different organisms in which both of them are benefited. For this term I have included a picture of a clown fish and an anemone. Both of these organisms benefit from each other because the clown fish gets protected by the anemone and the anemone benefits from the clown fish by using it as a lure to digest other fish that are not immune to its sting.
38: Radial Symmetry | An organism exhibits radial symmetry when it can be cut with two or more planes through its axis and produce almost a mirror image to the other parts. Organisms don't exhibit a left or right side, but do have a top and bottom. For this term I photographed the flower of a cactus that showed a balanced distribution of shapes.
39: Scale from an Animal with a Two Chambered heart | Fish are animals with two chambered hearts. Humans need four chambers in order to maximize oxygen flow and separate the non-oxygenated blood from the oxygenated blood, but fish don't. Four chambers are needed for organisms like us who have lungs, but fish have gills. Fish breathe by a counter-current exchange which passes water over the gills and "pulls" oxygen molecules into the blood, oxygenating it. Because of this specific exchange, a two chambered heart is preferable for fish. That is why I have provided a picture of a fish as an example of this term
40: Gastropod | Gastropods mostly consist of snails and slugs. Snails have a shell and can be removed by the organism, and slugs don't have a shell. Snails also have a head with eyes and tentacles that helps them navigate. Gastropods are some of the few organisms that have been able to successfully adapt to three of the major environments: oceans, freshwater, and land. That is why, for my example I have included the picture of a freshwater snail
41: Amniotic Egg | Unlike their ancestors, reptiles were the first animals to have internal fertilization and have eggs with an embryo with all the necessary nutrients for its growth. The egg contains extra embryonic membranes that help the embryo remove wastes, have water and food. The embryo and all of its nutrients are protected by the amnion which creates a sac filled with fluid so that it resembles a small pond within a shell. These membranes are then disposed off when the embryo is born. For this term I photographed a chicken egg. I cracked it open so the amniotic fluid that will help the embryo grow would be visible
42: Animal With A Segmented Body | Segmentation occurs when an animal's body plan is divided into a series of repetitive parts. Most animals with segmented bodies are insects, especially if they belong to the Arthropods. That is why I chose ants as an example of this term. As the picture from lifestudiesonline.com shows, the ant has three major divisions: the head, the trunk, and its metasoma | these divisions can be clearly seen in the picture I provided of a "solenopsis invicta" queen, workers, and brood.
43: HeartWood | The heartwood is the dead central wood of a tree. The cells contain tannins which give it its dark color and even a fresh smell. The heartwood is one of the most resistant parts of a tree, and it is less penetrable to harmful chemicals. Periodically, sapwood layers are converted to heartwood during a tree's life. In this picture I photographed a tree who part of its trunk was cut to reveal the dark circle in the center which is its heartwood.