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AP Bio Summer Assignment

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AP Bio Summer Assignment - Page Text Content

FC: AP Bio Summer Assignment Alan K. Lam

2: Endotherm - a.k.a warm-blooded organism, generates and conserves internal heat on its own, and therefore can maintain internal temperatures despite the external temperature. All mammals are endotherms.

3: Connective tissue - a fibrous tissue that consists of a sparse population of cells arranged is an extracellular matrix. Cartilage, one of many connective tissue types, is a strong but also flexible connective tissue that is made up of a vast amount of collagen fibers.

4: Thorns of a plant - The plant has modified leaves that function as protection from predators to enhance its chances for survival.

5: Fruit (fleshy with seeds) - fruits that have a fleshy part between the fruit's covering and the seeds.

6: Epithelial tissue - covers the whole surface of the human body. It is made up of sheets tightly packed cells that cover the lining of all internal and external body structures.

7: Dicot plant with flower & leaf - have flower petals in multiples of 4 or 5, have two cotyledons, have net-like leaf veins, have vascular bundles in a ring, and have taproots.

8: Adaptation of a plant - the thorns are an adaptive measure of the plant that give it a better chance to survive. Adaptations such as this still allow pollinators to pollinate the plant, while it prevents predators from harming it.

9: Insect - living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and one pair of antennae.

10: Keratin - fingernails and toenails are made of keratin, a tough protein.

11: Cuticle Layer of a Plant - Cuticle is a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

12: Monocot - have parallel veins, flower petals in multiple of three, have scattered vascular bundles, have single cotyledon and have fibrous root.

13: Sporophyte - The acorn is an dry fruit, enclosing the seed, but not splitting open at maturity. The acorn encloses the sporophyte, and the acorn is hard and dry at the seed’s maturity.

14: Pollen - contains the microgametophytes of seed plants which produce the male gametes to enable reproduction of offspring.

15: Long-day plant - a plant that will flower during times when the amount of light the plant is exposed to lengthens.

16: Exoskeleton - an external skeleton that protects the animal and provides points of attachment for the muscles that move the appendages.

17: K-strategist - promote putting more effort into reproducing and having a few offspring that have a better chance at survival. K-strategists have offspring that are more dependent on their parents.

18: Fermentation - the process of in which a type of vegetable of fruit turns into a substance that has alcohol.

19: Niche - the sum of a specie’s use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.

20: Leaf (gymnosperm) - leaves that can be long and thin like needles, or flat and broad.

21: Ethylene - a hydrocarbon plant hormone, in the form of gas. It controls the ripening of fruits, opening of flowers, and falling of leaves.

22: Frond - a divided leaf; it starts to grow out in multiple directions, creating the divided leaves.

23: The Calvin cycle - the second of the two major stages in photosynthesis. It is preceded by the light reactions. The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.

24: Cellulose - the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes.

25: C4 Plant - a plant which creates a four carbon (C4) sugar as its basic sugar unit when performing photosynthesis.

26: Lepidoptera - a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies

27: Phloem - plant tissue that carries organic nutrients made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of various specialized cells called sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres, and phloem parenchyma cells.

28: Eukaryotes - organisms that contain a complex cell structure enclosed within membranes and contains a membrane-bound nucleus. Usually, the presence of a nucleus distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes.

29: Chlorophyta - a division of green algae; group of all the green algae within the green plants

30: Stems (woody) - stems of plants who have been growing for two years or more. After two years, a plant's stem thickens to accommodate growth and increased circulation in a plant.

31: Stems (herbaceous) - a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level.

32: Littoral zone organism - an organism that lives near the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.

33: Lignin - a complex chemical compound most commonly derived from wood, and an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants and some algae.

34: Pollinator - an organism that collects pollen from the anthers of one flower and deposits the pollen on the stigma of another flower that it visits.

35: Myosin - the commonest protein in muscle cells, a globulin responsible for the elastic and contractile properties of muscle

36: Xylem - found in vascular plants as one of its transport tissue; a pipe like system which carries water from the soil to wherever the plant needs it.

37: Vascular plant tissue - the primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally.

38: Glycogen - a multibranched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi; the product the body makes after converting carbohydrates.

39: Gibberellins - plant growth hormones that regulate not only the growth of the stem and leaves, but the germination of the seed and the opening of a bud.

40: Xerophyte - a plant that has adapted to survive in an environment that lacks water, such as a desert.

41: Flower ovary - located in the heart of the flower, beneath the stigma and style; when the pollen of another plant attaches to the stigma and is moved down the style, it ends up in the flower ovary, fertilizing both the endosperm and the ovule.

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