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AP Biology Definitions by Theresa D.

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BC: By: Theresa D.

FC: AP Biology Definitions

1: By Theresa D.

3: The calvin cycle is a series of reactions, occurring during photosynthesis, in which glucose is synthesized from carbon dioxide. Plants are creatures that carry out this cycle in the chloroplasts of their cells that takes place in the stroma. It is the second part of photosynthesis.

5: Animal that has a segmented body is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments. A spider is an example of a segmented animal because you can cut it half vertically and have the same body plan on each side.

7: Cambium is cellular plant tissue from which phloem, xylem, or cork grows by division, resulting (in woody plants) in secondary thickening. It is a thin membrane that grows just below the bark.

9: Autotroph is an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. Grass "eats" by photosynthesis and that relies on inorganic substances.

11: Adaptations of animals are animals adjusting to the surrounding environment when necessary to survival of the species. Humans have adapted from fish by developing limbs. In the fish-eat-fish world, it was either adapt to the environment or get eaten. Tiktaalik had developed limbs to help it survive and after many generations, arms were given to animals to survive.

13: Hermaphrodites are organism that have reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes. Flowers have both organs inside of the petals and animals, or the wind, can carry pollen to several plants to pollinate after landing.

15: Pollen is a powdery substance produced by flowering plants that contains male reproductive cells. It is carried by wind and insects to other plants, which it fertilizes. All flowers contain pollen that animals can pick up when landing on them then carrying it to another plant. It is found in the stamen of a flower that is the male productive organ of flowers.

17: Vascular plant tissue is tissue of higher plants consisting mainly of xylem and phloem and occurring as a continuous system throughout the plant; it conducts water, mineral salts, and synthesized food substances and provides mechanical support. It can be found all throughout the plant.

19: Ethylene is a plant growth substance, involved in promoting growth. Fertilizer is an example and can be found in gardens to help flowers grow. It has been mixed in with dirt so that flowers can live.

21: Arthropod is an invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin with flies as an example. They don't have a vertebrate and have jointed limbs on the underside.

23: Phloem is the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves. It can usually be found in the stem and sometimes in the roots.

25: Chitin is a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi. It can be found on the exoskeleton of flies.

27: Chlorophyta is a phylum that comprises the green algae. It can be found growing in freshwater or on the side of fresh water tanks.

29: Exoskeleton is a rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals providing both support and protection. It covers a fly's body to give support so that it can survive.

31: Keratin is a fibrous protein forming the main structural constituent of hair, feathers, hoofs, claws, horns, etc. It is a protein that can be found in the tissues of feathers like in these ducks.

33: Ligin is the complex polymer in plant cell walls that gives the plant rigidity and strength, and is the major component of wood. Ligin would be located between and within cells and also in cell walls.

35: Heartwood is the wood at the center of a tree trunk or branch that is older, darker, and harder than the wood surrounding it.

37: Actin is a protein present in all cells and in muscle tissue where it plays a role in contraction. A human arm can easily contract, causing the proteins to fire. It is found in muscle fiber.

39: Cellulose is the main constituent of the cell walls of plants and algae. It is found within the cell walls of algae.

41: Ectotherm is an animal that maintains its body temperature by absorbing heat from its environment. A spider is an example of a cold-blooded animal because it cannot produce its own heat.

43: Myosin is a protein in muscles that helps them contract. It can be found in muscle fiber, along with actin.

45: Coelomate is an animal that has a cavity between the body wall and the digestive tract. It can be found in any vertebrate and is found in the mesoderm.

47: Eukaryote is a cell with a clearly defined nucleus. It can be any cell found in animals, plants, fungi, or protists. A guinea pig is made up of millions of eukaryote cells and can be found anywhere in the body.

49: Woody stems are the stems of plants who have been growing for two years or more. After two years, a plant's stem thickens to accommodate growth and increased circulation in a plant.

51: A herbaceous stem is a flowering plant whose stem does not produce woody tissue and generally dies back at the end of each growing season.

53: Glycogen is a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It can be found is the liver or muscles in humans.

55: Xylem is the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem. It is all throughout trees so that the tree can survive.

57: Gibberellins are any of a group of plant hormones that stimulate stem elongation, germination, and flowering. It is found mainly in roots and leaves of a plant or inside the stems.

59: Fibrous protein is any insoluble protein, including the collagens, elastins, and keratins, involved in structural or fibrous tissues. It can be found in the skeleton of a human.

61: Globular protein is any protein soluble in water, usually with added acid, alkali, salt, or ethanol. It can be found in the muscle fiber of humans.

63: Prokaryotes are microscopic single-celled organisms that have neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. An example is bacteria and they can be found everywhere; they are just to small to see by the naked human eye.

65: Pollinator is a way to transfer pollen grains from the male structure of a plant anther to the female structure of a plant stigma and fertilize it. Humans and insects like butterflies and flies can act as a pollinator.

67: Female pine cone is the seed-producing structure of a pine tree. The pine cone growing is female because of the size, shape, and texture.

69: Parenchyma cells are a type of plant cell responsible for most metabolic activities. They are found in leaves and in xylem and phloem vascular bundles.

71: The cuticle layer of a plant is the protective layer, containing cutin, that covers the epidermis of higher plants. It is the covering on the leaves of the plant that make it look shiny.

73: Dicot plant with flower and leaf is any member of the flowering plants, or angiosperms, that has a pair of leaves, or cotyledons, in the embryo of the seed. This is an example of a dicot plant that has grown older and flowered.

75: Meristem is the region of plant tissue consisting of actively dividing cells forming new tissue. It can be found in the tissue of plants or in zones of growth.

77: Ectotherm are animals that is dependent on external sources of body heat. A lizards body temperature constantly changes because it is cold blooded and is dependent on an outside heat source.

79: Epithelial tissue is membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body. It can be found inside humans covering the internal organs.

81: Connective tissue is a type of tissue found in animals whose main function is binding other tissue systems (such as muscle to skin) or organs and consists of the following three elements: cells, fibers and a ground substance. It can be found inside any animal around organs.

83: Parasite is an organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense. A flea can live off of a dog and cause the dog to constantly itch. The flea living while the dog suffers is an example of a parasite.

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