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FC: Cell Project | By: Azmina Pirani and Yue Chu
1: 1) All living things are made up of cells. 2) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3)Living cells come only from other living things. | Cell Theory
2: Robert Hooke Robert Hooke was an English scientist who looked through a compound microscope at a piece of cork. He observed tiny room like structures that reminded him of "cells" that monks use to live in, so these structures became known as cells. However the cork sells weren't alive so he only saw the cell wall.
3: Matthias Schleiden | Matthias Schleiden noticed that prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have similar--but not the same--structures and organelles. He noticed that both cells have a nucleus. His discoveries aided the discoveries of Theodore Schwann.
4: Rudolf Virchow | He proposed the idea that all cells come from other living cells. He tested this by experimenting with the meat and flies experiment.
5: Theodor Schwann | Theodor Schwann published a book on plant and animal cells. He concluded that a cell is an the basic unit of structure, it is the building block of all living things, and that cells reproduce spontaneously, like crystals. The first two conclusions were correct, but the third was not. Cells come from other cells.
6: Prokaryotic Cells | All bacteria and bacteria-like archaea are prokaryotic organisms. They lack a membrane-bound nucleus. The only membrane in the prokaryotic cell is the plasma membrane. Prokaryotics are single celled except when in colonies. They make up eubacteria and archaea. They reproduce with binary fission.
7: Eukaryotic Cells | Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. Animals, plants, fungi and protists are composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic organisms can either be single- celled or multi- celled. They have a nulceus. They contain internal membrane-bound.
8: Plant Cells | Plant cells have chloroplasts and a cell wall. They use chloroplasts, which contain a green color called chlorophyll. It aids photosynthesis, to help plants make their own food. Plant cells also have a central vacuole, which is much bigger than the numerous vacuoles in animal cells. The central vacuole helps store materials temporarily.
9: Animal Cells | Animal cells, unlike plant cells, do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts (they don't need to make their own food). They are rounder in shape that plant cells. They have many tiny vacuoles, instead of a big, central one. They also have centrioles, which are made of microtubeles and are active during cell division.
10: Mitochondria- It is an organelle with 3 membranes and produces ATP. It is known as the "power house" of the cell. | Chloroplast- They take in light energy and use it to create carbohydrates out of carbon dioxide and water. | Cytoskeleton- It's a skeleton contained within the cytoplasm. It provides shape and structure.
11: Golgi Apparatus- Its job is to modify, sort, and package proteins to store in the cell. | Vacuole- It's found mostly in plant cells and is the central water supply for the cell. | Flagella- The cilia and the flagella are very similar to each other. They are responsible for the cell's movement. There are 3 types of flagella: bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic. | Cell Wall- It's a rigid structure only found in plant cells that provides additional support and protection.
12: Endoplastic Reticulum-a system of membranes that helps proteins and other substances through the cell | Ribosome- most important function is to make proteins. Ribosomes are tiny and usually found in rough endoplastic reticulum. | Lysosomes help aid in digestion. They get rid of excess waste in the cell because they contain digestive enzymes.
13: The cell membrane is a flexible, organelle maid of lipids that is found in both plant and animal cells. It provides support and protection for the cell. Protein molecules are embedded inside the cell membrane, The lipid content of the membrane allows the it to automatically repair itself when it is torn. | Cell Membrane
14: In order to function properly and stay alive, cells must maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state in which everything within the cell is in equilibrium and functioning properly. The main organelle that ensures homeostasis is the cell membrane. The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell. In order for homeostasis to be maintained, a cell must get rid of its waste and keep its nutrients needed to function. | Homeostasis
15: The End