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Autumn

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FC: The Protestant Reformation By: Gina Noyce

1: The Protestant Reformation was a result of conflict between the self-governing towns and the new nation-states who were strongly for conformity and centralization. The self-governing cities, who were used to dealing with their own policies and procedures, began to lose their say in laws and customs. The ruler's customs and laws eventually overruled those of the traditional form. | This became a very touchy topic for the towns people because they no longer were allowed to believe what they wanted. They participated in the religious revolt in order to regain their political freedom and independence.This sense freedom was influenced by Renaissance leaders such as Erasmus, Jan Hus, and John Wycliffe.

2: Martin Luther was a reformer who disagreed with many aspects of the church's teachings. For example he did not believe in the "righteousness of God" because it is not possible for man to be perfect. He believe in faith alone. He also disagreed that good work would grant you salvations. He said that good works should always be done all through out life not just to earn salvation. He posted his 95 thesis to show his disliking of indulgences as well. Lutheranism was the religion that was created from Luther's teachings. Lutheranism became a legitimate religion in the Holy Roman Empire after thePeace of Augsburg and the approval of the principle states a region's ruler decides its religion.

3: Calvinism formed from the beliefs of John Calvin. His theology stressed the power of God's authority over all other creations and the importance of conforming to it. Lutheranism was replaced by Calvinism as the dominant Protestant strength in Europe. The resistance in the Netherlands, France, and Scotland were all inspired by Calvinism. Calvinists believed in divine predestination and the responsibility of an individual to reorder the society in order to form to God's plan. Calvinism spread to Palatinate, a German state where the Thirty Years war took place.

4: Protestantism first broke out in the imperial cities of Germany. Martin Luther's teachings gave way to the Reformation. His beliefs inspired Protestants. Lutheran and Zwinglian, (based on the beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli), Protestantism was still seen in Protestant movements. Germany was always Europe's high way for traders and merchants because of it's central location. Europe's rulers tried to control Germany because it had so many territorial ties.

5: French Protestantism first spread in Geneva. After Emperor Charles V captured King Francis I, the motivation to persecute Huguenots, French Protestants, increased. Protestantism spread to Paris and other Anti-Catholic cities. Massive Protestant arrests took place and members of the French reform party along with John Calvin were sent into exile. Conde and Coligny merged the military and religious organization, making a threatening Calvinist combo. The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ended the third war, and gave the Huguenots the right to fortify their cities and religious freedoms in their territories. Over 20,000 Huguenots were killed in Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Finally the Edict of Nantes gave French Protestants qualified religious freedoms. | Switzerland was made up of states and their allied areas. Some states stayed Catholic while others converted to Protestantism. The spread of national sentiment along with being against foreign mercenaries and was a desire for reforms within the church were both causes of the Swiss Reformation.

6: Protestant reformation in England began when English reformers got together and discussed Lutherans writings that got snuck into England by scholars and merchants. One of these reformers was William Tyndale who translated the New Testament into English and it began to get make its way around England. The chief minister to Henry VIII and Sir Thomas More, Thomas Wolsey, guided the opposition against English Reformation. The king defended the seven sacraments against Luther. In response to Luther's reply, Thomas More wrote Response to Luther.

7: The Italian Reformation was caused by the early development of humanism, the rule of foreign powers, defense against other monarchies, reaction to the wealth and action of the Catholic clergy, and the support of Italian political division. There was no true Spanish Reformation. The overruling power of the church and the Inquisition prevented it. There was religious reforms Protestants were executed for supporting Lutheranism. Michael Serventus had a big impact in Spanish literature. He wrote about idealism.

8: The radical reformers desired a more thorough and quick application of Apostolic Christianity. These reformers accused reform movements before them that they only went halfway. The most significant radical group was the Anabaptists. Anabaptists rejected infant baptism and only accepted adult baptism. They believed this because Jesus was baptized as an adult. Luther and Zwingli both supported infant baptism even though there was no biblical evidence. In a document, Schleitheim Confession, Anabaptists were identified by their practice of adult baptism and their pacifism. They refused to swear oaths, and did not participate in the offices of secular government. Modeled after the first Christians, Anabaptists separated themselves from society to form a perfect communion. Political authorities viewed their separation as a threat to social bonds. Up to as many as 5,000 people were executed rebaptizing themselves as adults.

9: Antitrinitarians were the final group of radical Protestants. They lived by a commonsense, rational, ethical religion. Among them was Michael Serventus, who was executed because he encouraged John Calvin. The founders of Socinianism, Lelio and Faustus Sozzini, were strongly against Calvinism. They were especially against the idea of original sin and predestination. They both have reputations as the defenders of religious toleration.

10: Some religious changes were numbers of the clergy and religious holidays dropped by one third. Worship was done mostly in the vernacular, indulgence preachers no longer existed, shrines were closed down and copies of the New Testament, translated by Luther, could be found in private homes. The new clergy encouraged meditation of the bible. The clergy could now marry, they paid taxes, and were punished for their crimes in court. | Some of the political changes that were evident after the Reformation included no more papal political power, just as John Wycliffe had stressed. Elizabeth I was said to be the best example of a politique. Rulers gained the power to decide the religion of the region that they ruled. William Shakespeare wrote his historical plays based on political events.

11: Some of the social changes included later marriages, men in their mid to late twenties to woman in their early to mid twenties, arranged marriages, early artificial birth control was opposed by the church, wet nursing was done by hired nurses and also was used as a sort of contraceptive. Woman were praised for her own right, and her biblical role as a mother.

13: The Catholic Reformation, also known as the Counter-Reformation, supported a centralized episcopal church system. This church system was hierarchically arranged from with the pope and the top, and gravely stressed unquestioned obedience to the person on the top. Calvinism was against this hierarchical rule, while Catholic Church supported absolute monarchy. The Catholic Reformation was the period of Catholic revival. It began with the Council of Trent, and ended with the end of the Thirty Years War. It involved the Inquisition, and stressed a personal devotion to God. The Spanish Mystics formed during this time including Michael Serventes.

14: Religious Wars | Catherine De Medicis issued the January Edict, which gave Protestants the freedom to worship publicly outside town. The Edict came to an end in 1562 when the duke of Guise surprise attacked a Protestant congregation, and massacred many worshipers. This event marked the beginning of the French Religious Wars. The Revolt in the Netherlands caused many oppositions. The Spanish military was defeated, and Philip learned defeat as well. Philip dispatched the terrible reign of the Duke of Alba upon the Protestants. Political resistance merged with Calvinism, and gained organization and inspiration. Lady Jane Gray ruled England in place of Mary Tudor. She ruled for only a few short days before being replaced by the rightful ruler. Mary I, whose mother is Catherine of Aragon. Mary enters a political marriage with Philip which looks to be Catholicism to English Protestants. During her rule, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake or fled. Her half-sister Elizabeth I, daughter of Anne Boleyn, became her successor. She was known as the best example of a politique. She dealt cautiously with puritans, who threatened the unity of her rule. A war between England and Spain broke out after the Spanish duke of Alba marched into the Netherlands. Elizabeth was excommunicated for heresy. The Armada defeated the Spanish and gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere.

15: The Thirty Years War was a huge religious war. It had four parts: The Bohemian Period, the Danish Period, The Swedish Period, and the French-Swedish Period. The war broke out in Bohemia after the ascent to the Bohemian throne of Ferdinand. Ferdinand re-catholicized Bohemia, and conquered Palatinate. The Danish Period began when Kind Christian IV decided to enter Germany with his army, but was humiliated militarily by by Maximilian. The Edict of Restitution was issued by Ferdinand, reaffirming that Calvinism was illegitimate and it ordered all the lands the Lutherans had gained. Adolphus II became king of Sweden opening the Swedish Period. He was a military genius who led the Swedish to victory at Breitenfeld. In the Peace of Prague, the German Protestant states came to a compromise with Ferdinand. The French openly enter the war, causing the French-Swedish Period. They sent men and munitions into Germany. Germany was too tired to fight any longer so they just suffered the casualties. The war had killed about one-third of the German population. The Treaty of Westphalia ended the war.

16: Works Cited | Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print. "The Protestant Reformation." The Protestant Reformation. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. . "WHKMLA : Reformation in Spain." WHKMLA : Reformation in Spain. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. .

22: Nature gives to every season, a beauty all its own. - Charles Dickens

25: Fall is here!

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