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Biomes of the World Book

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Biomes of the World Book - Page Text Content

S: Biones of the World

FC: Biomes of the World

1: Biomes of the World Table of Contents Rain Forests............................................2-3 Temperate Deciduous Forests.............4-5 Taiga.........................................................6-7 Savannas..................................................8-9 Temperate Grasslands......................10-11 Chaparral.............................................12-13 Deserts.................................................14-15 Tundra..................................................17-17

2: Tropical rain forests are always humid and warm and get about 200 to 450 cm of rain a year. Because they are located near the equator they have strong sunlight all year round and maintain a constant temperature | Tropical rain forests are located in a belt around the Earth near the equator. They help reduce and regulate world climate and play vital roles in the nitrogen, oxygen and carbon cycles. | Tropical

3: The rain forest layers are separated into four main layers the emergent layer, upper canopy layer, lower canopy layer and understory layer. As you go down the layers will have less sun than the one above. | The tropical rain forest is the biome with the greatest amount of species diversity. Food Chain: banana trees-->insects-->red-eye tree frog-->jaguar | Rain Forest | Plants | Animals

4: In temperate deciduous forests trees drop their broad, flat leaves each fall.These forests dominated vast regions of the Earth, including parts of North America, Europe, and Asia. Today they are typically located between 30and 50 degree north latitudes.The range of temperatures can be extreme, and growing seasons are only six months. | Temperate Deciduous Forest

5: Like in the tropical rain forest plants in the deciduous rain forests grow in layers. Large trees such as maple oak and birch dominate the forest canopy and small trees and shrubs cover the understory however more plant life grows in the understory of the deciduous forest since it gets more sunlight. The plants also are adapted to survive seasonal changes. | The animals of temperate deciduous forests are adapted to use the forest plants for food and shelter. Food Chain seeds-->mouse-->howl | Plants | Animals

6: Taiga has coniferous trees. a conifer tree is a tree with needle-like leaves and seeds that develop in cones. The shape of the trees and their waxy coating prevent the tree from losing much water. Conifer needles contain substances that make the soil acidic when the needles fall. This is one of the reasons why not many plants grow in the taiga. | The taiga is the northern coniferous forest that stretches in a broad band across the Northern Hemisphere just below the Arctic Circle. Winters are long (6 to 10 months) and have average temperatures of -20 degrees Celsius. | Tai | Plants

7: Food Chain Evergreen--> Caribou-->Wolf--> Black Bear | The taiga has many lakes and swamps that in summer attract birds that feed on aquatic organisms. Because food is scarce in the winter many animals hibernate. | ga | Animals

8: Because most rain falls during the wet season plants must be able to survive long periods of time without water.Many plants have large horizontal root systems so they can draw water from as large and area as possible. The coarse Savannah grasses have vertical leaves that expose less of their surface area to the hot sun to further help conserve water and some trees lose their leaves to conserve water. | Parts of Africa, western India, northern Australia and some parts of South America are covered by grasslands called savannas. Rain falls mainly during the wet season, which only lasts for a few months a year. This is the only time a year plants can grow | Sava | Plants

9: Grazing herbivores have adopted a migratory way of life. They follow the rains to areas of newly sprouted grass and watering holes. Some predators follow and stalk migratory animals for food. Many animals only give birth during the rain season, and some eat vegetation at different heights than others. | Food Chain Grass-->Zebra-->Lion | nnas | Animals

10: Mountains often play a crucial role in maintaining | Temperate grassland covers large areas of the interior of continents, where there is moderate rainfall, but still too little for trees to grow. The prairies in North America, the steppes in Asia, and the veldt in South Africa, and the pampas in South America are temperate grasslands. | Temperate | Grass | grasslands for example in North America, rain clouds moving from the west release most of their moisture as they pass over the Rocky Mountains. As a result, the shortgrass prairie just east of the Rockies receives so little rain that it looks almost like a desert. | Grasslands dry out in the summer so lightning strikes often start fires

11: Temperate grassland vegetations consists of grasses and wildflowers. Although there is only a single layer of vegetation many species are present | lands | The root systems of grassland plants form dense layers that survive drought and fire. And grasslands are highly productive because of their fertile soil. | Grazing animals suck as pronghorn antelope and bison have large flat back teeth for chewing the coarse prairie grasses. Other animals live in burrows. | Plants | Animals

12: The Chaparral is a temperate shrubland biome that is found in all five parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate. These areas have moderately dry, coastal climates with little or no rainfall in the summer. | Chaparral is located in the middle latitudes about 30 degrees north and south of Ecuador. | Chapp | Most chaparral plants are low-lying evergreen shrubs and small trees that tend to grow in dense patches. They will have small leathery leaves that retain water and contain oils that promote burning. | Plants

13: A common adaptation of chaparral animals is camouflage, which is shape or coloring that allows an animal to blend into its environment. Animals will have brownish-gray coloring that lets them move through the brush without being noticed. | arral | Animals

14: Deserts are areas that have widely scattered vegetation and receive very little rain. In extreme cases it never rains and there is no vegetation. Even in hot deserts near the equator there is so little insulating moisture in the air that the temperature changes rapidly during a 24-hour period.Deserts are often located near mountain ranges which block the passage of rain clouds | Des | All desert plants have adaptations for obtaining and conserving water which allow the plants to live in dry desert conditions. Plants called succulents such as cactus's have thick fleshy stems and leaves that store water. Many desert shrubs drop their leaves during dry season. Many plants' roots spread out just under the surface of the soil to absorb as much rain as possible. | Plants

15: Reptiles such as Gila monsters and rattlesnakes, have thick, scaly skin that prevents water loss. Amphibians such as the spadefoot toad survive scorching desert summers by estivating (burying themselves in the ground and sleeping through they dry season), some animals nest in cactuses to avoid predators. Insects and spiders are covered with body armor that helps them retain water and most animals are nocturnal. | ert | Animals | Food Web plants--> Insects --> lizard--> Fox

16: Moses and lichen which can grow without soil cover vast areas of rocks in the tundra. The soil is thin so plants have wide shallow roots to help anchor them against the icy winds. | Tundra is a biome that is located in northern arctic regions. The winter is too cold and dry to permit the growth of trees in this biome. In many areas of the deeper layers of soil called permafrost are permanently frozen throughout the year. As a result the topsoil is very thing. | Tun | Plants

17: Millions of migratory birds fly to the tundra to breed in the summer. Food is abundant in the form of plants, mollusks and worms. Many animals lose their brown fur and grow white fur that camouflages them with the winter snow. These animals are well insulated | dra | Animals | Food Web Small flowering plants--> lemmings --> Arctic fox

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