FC: "May your blessings outnumber The shamrocks that grow, And may trouble avoid you Wherever you go." ~Irish Blessing | Birds | David Ho & Camille Atlan | Section 1 Period 1 Sayyah
1: Classification Page of Birds | Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata Sub Phylum- Vertebata Class- Aves Orders- Raptors, Flightless birds, Water birds, Wading birds, Seed eaters, Insect eaters, Nocturnal birds, and Song birds.
2: Biomes by Class; What is a bird? | Birds live in all biomes. They live in rain forest biomes, desert biomes, grassland biomes, deciduous biomes, boreal forest biomes, tundra biomes, mountains and ice, freshwater biomes, and marine biomes. Basically, almost everyone has seen a bird once in their life. | *What is a bird? -Birds are endothermic vertebrates that lays eggs and have feathers and four-chambered hearts.
3: Reproduction Method and Feathers | Birds have internal fertilization and reproduce sexually. Birds are different in the time that it takes for the chicks to hatch and develop. Usually, larger birds take longer to incubate. | Feathers: Feathers are made of the same material as your fingernails. There are different types of feathers. Contour feathers are of the larger feathers that give birds their shapes and steer them when in flight. Birds also have down feathers that trap heat and and keep the bird warm.
4: Food Web | What birds eat depend on the ecosystem they live in. Some birds for example eat seeds and fruit because it is available to them. Other birds for example eagles eat meat from the forest and the mountain. | Animals like jaguars, wolves, and cougars eat various types of birds. Each year in America domestic house cats eat up to 500,000,000 wild birds a year.
5: Bee-Eaters eat bees and insects keeping insect populations down. Bee-Eaters can be found in Asia, Europe, Australia, and Africa | Perching Birds represent more than half of the bird species. Most Perching Birds eat seeds or fruits. | Characteristics by Order | The Snowy egret is a carnivore that eats in shallow water, eating fish, crabs, crayfish, insects, reptiles and rodents. The snowy egret picks up what he/she is going to eat and swallows it whole.
6: Era / Period | The Archaeopteryx is considered by many to be the first bird, being of about 150 million years of age. It is actually intermediate between the birds that we see flying around in our backyards and the predatory dinosaurs like Deinonychus. | The Archaeopteryx had a full set of teeth, a rather flat breastbone, a long, bony tail, ribs, and three claws on the wing which could have still been used to grasp prey. However, its feathers, wings, wishbone and reduced fingers have all characteristics of modern birds. The era, of the first appearance of birds, is Mesozioc 248-68 million years ago. In the Jurassic Period 206-144 million years ago.
7: Behaviors by Order; Food and Body Temperature | Bee-eaters have a unique behavior, they feed on bees and catches their prey as they fly, they basically help control pests. Ostriches are known for their fast speed on land, instead of in the air. Woodpeckers are unique because they eat insects in the holes of trees. Owls are nocturnal and known for their sharp vision and keen hearing. | Food and Body Temperature: Birds use their bills to handle, capture, and grip food. Birds have no teeth. Birds also have an internal storage tank called a crop to store food inside after swallowing. Birds also have a gizzard that grinds the partially digested food. Gizzards have a similar function to teeth. The gizzard also may contain stones that the bird has swallowed to help grind and crush the food. Birds use the food that they eat for energy like all animals, especially the amount of energy needed to fly. Daily, a bird usually eats a quarter of their weight.
8: Predator/Prey Feeding Habits; Delivering Oxygen to Cells | Birds of Prey catches its food by hovering in the air and scanning the ground. Since they eat insects, when they see one, they swoop down and grab it. Long-Legged Waders catch small animals by putting its long flattened bill into the water and sweeping it back and forth. Owls use their razor sharp claws and strength to prey on animals, some can even prey on deer. | Delivering Oxygen to Cells: Birds have a system of air sacs in their body that attaches to the lungs. Air Sacs allow birds to extract more oxygen from each breath. Birds have a three chambered hearts. Each chamber contains 2 atria and 2 ventricles. Their circulatory system is two-loop. The right side of a bird's heart pumps blood to the lungs, where blood takes up oxygen. Then the richer oxygen returns to the left side and then pumps the blood to the rest of the body.
9: Type of Symmetry | Most animals like butterflies and humans have bilateral symmetry. | Birds have a bilateral symmetry. That means that if the bird is cut in half then it will be a mirror image of itself.
10: Why Birds Are Important | Birds are important because some pollinate plants and reduce pests like rats and mice. | Also many perching birds feed on insect pests. | Birds that eat seeds move them to different places.
11: Diversity of Birds | Birds are the most diverse land-dwelling vertebrates. Adaptations birds have are claws, legs, and bills. | The bills of ducks help them filter protists and animals from the water. | Birds also have adaptations for flying, attracting mates, and caring for their young.
12: For birds to fly they must have very quick reactions Birds react quickly because of a well developed brain and good senses of sight and hearing. | Most birds have a better eyesight than humans. Some birds have excellent. | Nervous System and Senses
13: "For each petal on the shamrock this brings a wish your way- Good health, good luck, and happiness for today and every day." | Reproducing | Similar to reptiles, birds have internal fertilization and lay eggs. Also reptile eggs are softer than bird eggs which are harder. | Bird eggs develop a temperature close to the parents'. A parent bird incubates the egg by sitting on them. | The amount of time taken for the bird to hatch depends on the type of bird.
14: "May your pockets be heavy and your heart be light, May good luck pursue you each morning and night." ~Irish Blessing | Caring For Young | When a bird is ready to hatch it pecks through the eggshell. Some newly hatched chicks are blind and featherless. | Most parent birds care for their young by feeding and protecting it from predators until the chick is able to fly.
15: Extra Credit | Genus, Species | Golden Eagle | The genus of the Golden Eagle is Aquila and the species is Aquila chrysaetos. The golden eagle was classified in the genus Aquila along with other eagles that have feathered tarsi. | Their food mainly comes from small mammals, especially rodents. Sometimes, they eat larger mammals, such as foxes, young pronghorns, and young deer, or birds, such as grouse. | During the winter when rodents are inactive, Golden Eagles then, hunt larger prey like deer.