FC: ORGANELLES of Eukaryotic Cells By Emily Vulpio & Tommy Thompson
1: The cell membrane is located around the exterior of the cell. It's function is to seperate and protect all of the other interior components of the cell from the extracellular environment. It works with the other organelles by allowing the materials they need for survival, in and out of the cell. The cell membrane is like the border of America, it keeps out the bad, and lets in the good. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ | Cell Membane
2: Cell Wall | The cell wall is located around the exterior of a plant cell. Plant cells are the only cells that have a cell wall. The cell wall determines the shape of the cell, provides strength, maintains turgor pressure, regulates the passage of substances into the cell, and protects the cell from pathogens and microorganisms. The cell wall works with the cell membrane to regulate molecules going in and out of the cell. It also works with the cytoplasm during cell division. The cell wall is like a wall of your bedroom. It protects the inisde from harmful eexterior substances, and provedes support (strenght).
3: Cytoplasm | The cytoplasm of a cell is located all throughout the cell. Cytoplasm offers support to the cell and speeds up inter-cellular travel. It allows the cell to take up 3-dimensional space and the cell's many organelles to float freely throughout. It acts as a medium for transport inside the cell for other organelles. Its like the water in a fishtank. It allows the fish (organelles) to carry out their functions.
4: Cytoskeleton | The cytoskeleton is located in the cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton helps to maintain cell shape. But the primary importance of the cytoskeleton is in cell motility. The internal movement of cell organelles, as well as cell locomotion and muscle fiber contraction could not take place without the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton works as a framework for the cell, it helps to keep the shape of the cell. And in return, the cell membrane helps the cytoskeleton to attach to the innard of the cell. The cytoskeleton is like the skeleton of a human. It keeps the organism from collapsing.
5: Nucleus | The nuclues is loacted around the center of the cell. Its main function is to control the hereditary characteristics of an organism, It is also responsible for the protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation. The DNA that the nucleus holds creates proteins that the other organelles use to function. The nucleus is like a chef, it makes food that people (organelles) use to live (function).
6: Nucleolus | The nucleolus is located in the nuclues of a cell. Its function is to produce subunits which together form ribosomes. It then uses the ribosomes to move out of the nucleus to produce proteins. The necleolus is like a mini factory. It creates products (ribosomes) then ships them out, one by one.
7: Ribosomes | Ribosomes are located on the rough endoplasmic reticulium or in the cytoplasm. The synthesize proteins by creating amino acid chains from translated RNA. Ribosomes produce proteins that the cell membrane uses to function. Ribosomes are like interpreters that translate the RNA into words (food) that other organelles can use.
8: Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough) | Located in the cytoplasm directly outside the nucleus. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is important in the synthesis of proteins. On the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the messenger RNA from the nucleus is translated into proteins. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is like a highway. Goods are being shipped on it like proteins are being delivered to organelles.
9: Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth) | Located in the cytoplasm directly outside the nucleus. Smooth endoplasmic is important in the synthesis of lipids and cell membrane proteins. Its functions include carbohydrate metabolism, synthesis of steroids and lipids, drug detoxification, and metabolism of steroids. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is also like a highway by delivering proteins by budding.
10: Golgi Apparatus | Receives proteins from ER by transport vesicles. Proteins are then modified, stored and shipped to other parts of the cell. It ships other organelles the proteins they need to function. The golgi apparatus Is like a company that does manufacturing, warehousing, sorting and shipping.
11: Vacuoles | Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in plant cells that are filled with water. They are used to contain and secrete cellular waste, maintains acidity in the cell and store water for use in cells. They work with other organelles by holding and getting rid of their waste. Vacuoles act like a garbage company. They pickup and dispose of other organelles waste.
12: Lysosomes | Lysosomes are membranous enyzmes. The enzymes of the lysosome are made in the endoplasmic reticulum and are transported to the lysosomes by the Gogli complex using a vesicle. The enzymes can then fuse with incoming viruses to break them down. Also they can fuse with dysfunctional organelles and recycle them. Lysosomes are like stomachs because they digest and breakdown other organisms to be reused.
13: Centrioles | Centrioles are usually found around the nucleus, but they cannot be seen when the cell is not dividing. They are there to help the cell during the process of both mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles form spindle fibers during cell division which bring half the number of chromosomes on each side of the cell, so that when the cell divides, the chromosomes are distributed equally in both the daughter nuclei. A centriole is like a straw because they are both tubes that let things get from one end to the other.
14: Mitochondria | Mitochondria is located in the cytoplasm of a cell. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell. They are the sites of cellular respiration which ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities. Mitochondria are also involved in other cell processes such as cell division and growth, as well as cell death. They produce ATP that is required by most other organelles for their functions. The mitochondria is like the engine of the car in the way that engines provide the car with power, and mitochondria provide the cell with energy.
15: Chloroplasts | Chloroplasts are spread throughout the cytoplasm of plant cells. They are responsible for the production of food. Chlorophyll contained in the chloroplasts is responsible for absorbing sunlight. It's through the process of photosynthesis that a plant makes food for itself. All of the other organelles of the plant use this food to function. The chloroplasts are like solar panels, they capture sunlight and transfers it to energy.
16: Cilia or Flagella | Cilia and flagella are attached to the outside of the cell, they project from it. They are motile and designed either to move the cell itself or to move substances over or around the cell. The primary purpose of cilia in cells is to move fluid, mucous, or cells over their surface. Cilia and flagella have the same internal structure. The major difference is in their length; flagella is longer. They move the cell (and all of its organelles) to where it needs to go. Cilia and flagella are like buses, or taxis. They move people (cells) from one place to another.
17: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cytoskel.htm https://docs.google.com/present/edit?id=0AcRwksdIQG6WZGc1bTY3cXRfNDQ1Y2RzdGdw&hl=en_US http://www.cs.stedwards.edu/chem/Chemistry/CHEM43/CHEM43/Ribosomes/Ribosome.HTML http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/er.htm http://www.buzzle.com/articles/chloroplast-function.html