S: The Great USA Flood Of 1993
BC: Abbey Jones Creations
FC: The Great USA Flood Of 1993
1: From May through September of 1993, a major and record flooding occurred across North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Illinois. The magnitude and severity of this flood event was simply over-whelming, and it ranks as one of the greatest natural disasters ever to hit the United States. Approximately 600 river forecast points in the Midwestern United States were above flood stage at the same time. Nearly 150 major rivers and tributaries were affected. It was certainly the largest and most significant flood event ever to occur in the United States.
2: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated, some never to return to their homes. At least 10,000 homes were totally destroyed, hundreds of towns were impacted with at least 75 towns totally and completely under flood waters. | hundreds of towns were impacted with at least 75 towns totally and completely under flood waters. At least 15 million acres of farmland were inundated, some of which may not be usable for years to come.
3: Transportation in Mississippi was severely impacted. Barge traffic on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers was stopped for nearly 2 months. Bridges were out or not accessible on the Mississippi River from Davenport, Iowa, downstream to St. Louis, Missouri. On the Missouri River, bridges were out from Kansas City, downstream to St. Charles, Missouri.
4: Floods A flood is a a great flowing or overflowing of water onto land that is not usually submerged. A flood happens when too much rain, brought by storms and strong winds, falls and cannot be absorbed by the soil. Rivers burst their banks and the water spills onto the land. Strong winds blowing across the sea make huge waves that surge onto the land and flood coastal areas. Types of Floods River Floods Rivers floods happen when rivers and streams cannot carry away all the extra water that falls as rain or comes from melting snow. The water rises in the rivers and streams and overflows onto normally dry land. Floods destroy farmland, wash away people's houses and drown people and animals. Towns and cities are flooded too. Coastal flooding can be caused by strong winds blowing waves onto the land. Hurricanes and major storms produce most coastal floods. Very high tides and tsunamis also flood the coasts. In many countries, large groups of people live along the coasts and for these people coastal flooding can be very serious. Thousands of people have been drowned in coastal flooding in many parts of the world.
5: A flash flood is a quick flood caused by a sudden cloudburst or thunder storm. Huge amounts of water fall in a short time and in cities and towns the drains overflow and roads become flooded. Flash floods also happen in mountainous areas, where steep slopes cause the water to travel at high speeds. The rushing water erodes the soil, washing it away down the slopes. Flash floods often occur rapidly and with little warning. Humans may also cause floods Floods sometimes occur when artificial structures such as dams fail. If the dam is poorly designed or built in a place where earthquakes and landslides occur, the dam will break and the water floods the land. One dam failure in the United States of America occurred in 1972 when a dam used to store waste from a coal mine as well as water, collapsed after three days of rain. The flood drowned 118 people and caused $65 million in damages. When floodwaters rise slowly people have time to get ready. They can move themselves and some of their property to higher ground, or build barriers to keep the water out of their homes. Sometimes the water rises quickly and people and cars get caught in the flood. Water gets into buildings causing damage, things are washed away, and people have to leave their homes.
6: Before After
7: When a rainstorm's over, the suffering from the people defiantly isn't. The remaining of what the storm has left is only worst.
9: Precipitation During June through August 1993, rainfall totals surpassed 12 inches across the eastern Dakotas, southern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, Wisconsin, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. More than 24 inches of rain fell on central and northeastern Kansas, northern and central Missouri, most of Iowa, southern Minnesota, and southeastern Nebraska, with up to 38.4 inches in east-central Iowa. These amounts were approximately 200-350 percent of normal from the northern plains southeastward into the central United States. From April 1 through August 31, precipitation amounts approached 48 inches in east-central Iowa, easily surpassing the area's normal annual precipitation of 30-36 inches. A critical factor affecting the record flooding was the near continuous nature of the rainfall. Many locations in the nine-state area experienced rain on 20 days or more in July, compared to an average of 8-9 days with rain. There was measurable rain in parts of the upper Mississippi basin on every day between late June and late July. The persistent, rain-producing weather pattern in the Upper Midwest, often typical in the spring but not summer, sustained the almost daily development of rainfall during much of the summer.
11: The Great Flood of 1993 constituted the most costly and devastating flood to ravage the United States in modern history. Levees were broken, farmland, town, and transportation routes were destroyed, thousands of people were forced to abandon their homes, and 47 people died as a direct result of the flood. The Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, reported that the flood caused enormous human suffering. At least 75 towns were completely inundated, some of which have not been rebuilt. The Great Flood of 1993 inundated more than 20 million acres in nine states. Approximately 54,000 people had to be evacuated from flooded areas at some time during the flood, and approximately 50,000 homes were destroyed or damaged. Losses were estimated at 15 to 20 billion dollars
12: The causes and impacts of the 1993 Mississippi Flood Mississippi - the Facts •The river basin is the fifth largest in the world •It is the third longest river in the world behind the Nile & the Amazon •The river discharges 584 million tonnes of sediment a year •The flood plain is 200km wide at its widest point •The Mississippi flows through 10 states •The river carries 13% of all freight traffic in the USA •Its main tributaries are the R. Ohio, R. Kansas, R. Missouri & the Red River The Causes of the 1993 Flood •Floods are normal in the mid-west - usually arriving in the spring when rain and snow melt fill the streams & rivers that drain the upper Mississippi Basin •In 1993 as normal this happened - the soil was still saturated from spring rains. Normally this is followed by dry weather &has done so for the last 20 years •In 1993 Atmospheric conditions conspired to bring further torrential rains to the Mississippi basin.
13: Secondary Effects •River traffic halted for several months •Crop losses were put at $2.6 billion •Insurance pay-outs reached $12 billion in property alone •Stagnant water attracted mosquitoes and rats and there was a threat of disease •Electricity lines collapsed leaving many towns without power
15: IMPACTS: Floods make an enormous impact on the environment and society. Floods destroy drainage systems, causing raw sewage to spill out into the bodies of the water. Also, in cases of terrible and severe floods, buildings can be significantly damaged and even destroyed. This can lead to catastrophic effects on the environment as many toxic materials such as paint, pesticide and gasoline can be led into the rivers, lakes, bays, and ocean, killing marine life. Floods may also cause millions of dollars worth of damage to a city, both evicting people from their homes and ruining businesses. Floods cause significant amounts of erosion to coasts, leading to more frequent flooding if not repaired. Floods pick up rubbish from the streets when the waters flowing, the rubbish gets carried into the rivers and pollutes them entirely. However, floods do make a slight positive impact on the environment. Floods spread sediment containing beneficial nutrients to topsoil that might never arrive there otherwise.
16: Resettlement Case Study The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 resulted in $15 billion in damages, including the displacement of tens of thousands of families, loss of life and demonstrating the failure of traditional flood management measures, such as levees. Rather than face the threat of continued flooding, some citizens chose to resettle on higher ground. Approximately 20,000 Midwesterners decided to move out of the floodplain, resulting in the relocation of more than 8,000 homes and business. This is the largest voluntary relocation after a flood in U.S. history. Furthermore, farmers voluntarily converted more than 50,000 acres of flooded farmland to wetlands. Relocation efforts in a town near St. Louis led to a 99 percent drop in federal disaster relief costs, dropping from $26.1 million in 1993 to less than $300,000 in 1995. This is in stark contrast to another town near St. Louis that chose a more structural flood management approach, enlarging its levees in order to permit development of the floodplain. Despite the upgrades, this town suffered more than $200 million in damages, one of the highest bills for flood-related damage, as a result of the 1993 floods
17: Flood proofing Structures may be modified in a variety of ways to reduce the risk of floodwater penetration and damage, including: waterproofing walls, fitting openings with permanent or temporary doors, gates or other closure devices, fitting one-way valves on sewer lines and building boundary walls around the house structure. The internal design of buildings may also be altered to reduce flood damage. For example, electrical circuits and sockets may be permanently routed and located at high rather than low levels. In extreme cases, buildings may be raised on piers and occasionally buildings will be built on raised mounds or with important areas above likely flood levels. Further measures may include sump pumps that begin operating in basements when water levels rise, and contingency plans for when a flood is anticipated.
18: Costs Costs for flood proofing vary depending on the combination or complexity of tactics pursued. Lifting a house to install a taller foundation or piers could cost as little as $30,000 or more than $200,000. Preventive measures for sewer pipes and the flooding of basements or first floors include installation of back-up valves or gates, standpipes, sewage ejector pumps, and overhead sewers and can range anywhere from $100 to $6,000. The average price range for materials, labor, and installation of a Floodguard flood wall is $100 to $140 per lineal foot. A flood wall can also be incorporated into the actual wall of the house by retrofitting the structure with a waterproof veneer (appropriate in areas where flood depth is generally two feet or less). The average cost for retrofitting a house or building with waterproof veneer is $10 per square foot of exterior wall.