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Focusing on Crater Lake

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FC: STEM EXPEDITION 2012 | Reed Patrick

1: Table of Contents | 4-5 Student Biography 6-7 Renie Brady in the Field 10-15 Geology of the Cascade Mountains 16-17 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory 18-22 Animal Tracking - Oregon 23-27 Animal Tracking - Ohio 28-32 Digital Photography - Five Favorites 33-51 Digital Photography Quality Photos 52-53 Crater Lake Panorama

2: My fantastic experience with STEM Expedition 2012 could not have been possible without Sandy Willmore, Leslie Shea, Patrick Samanich, Claire Monk Andy Moore, and Rob Hood. Thank you!

4: Reed Patrick | My name is Reed Patrick and this coming school year I am going to be a tenth grader. Over this summer my experience during STEM Expedition 2012 was not just good, but extraordinary. I have made friends with everyone in the class, and will still be their friends outside of STEM. In fact, Hannah, Catherine and I plan to fundraise over the next year for our trip to Africa. Before STEM began, I was expecting to learn a lot about geology and digital photography. I was not certain that I would enjoy digital photography, but I have ended up learning so much and had a blast taking pictures and learning others' techniques. As for geology (which I LOVE!), I was reminded of a lot that I learned in eighth grade, and then I learned other fun things like map-making and facts that are specific to Oregon. I am excited to learn more about the geology of Africa and Hawaii! Tracking, on the other hand, I had no idea even existed! I was so shocked about everything there is to learn about tracking, and I have most definitely developed a new eye for nature. On our trip to Oregon, I was really interested in learning about the US Fish and Wildlife Forensics Lab. During our stay, the people in Crater Lake National Park and Medford were so inviting to our large class and I think we all felt more than welcome wherever we went.

5: My cabin mates and I decided that we could last a couple more days together in Oregon before getting homesick, which is a good sign because we had already been there for an entire week. On the trip home, we flew straight over the wildfires occurring in Colorado, which I both would have never heard of or seen without taking STEM. I am beyond excited to continue STEM with our teachers and bring my brother along next time!

6: Renie Brady - Scientific Artist in the Field | Irene Brady is a scientific illustrator who focuses on drawing with the right brain rather than the left brain. She taught the STEM class that the left brain memorizes forms and shapes and does not let the right brain draw what it really sees through the eyes. Renie has won awards for her drawings and created illustrations for many magazines. For five years, Renie was a scientific illustrator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Forensics Lab. She created their national logo and made courtroom displays for trials. Renie helped us practice drawing what we see rather than what we have seen before. We also learned almost 20 different ways to shade and draw plants and bushes. My own drawings became so much more real and understandable. I do not take much time to sit and draw in my life, so when Renie made us sit in a field in Soda Mountain Wilderness, it was exciting and I got to focus on drawing for fifteen minutes of my life.

8: Geology of Cascade Mountains | Discovered 53 years after Alfred Wegner’s proposal of the supercontinent ‘Pangea’, the plate tectonics theory became “the framework within which to view most geologic processes” (Tarbuck and Lutgens, 2003, p. 199). Tectonic plates are broken pieces of Earth’s lithosphere, classified as oceanic or continental. Oceanic plates are thin, made of basalt, and more dense than continental plates, which are thick, made of granite, and buoyant. These plates move at the speed that your fingernails grow. As they move, they either collide, separate, or slide together. If two plates collide, it is called a convergent plate boundary and mountains and volcanoes are formed and earthquakes occur. If they separate, is it called a divergent plate boundary and new land or volcanoes are formed in between plates in rift valleys. If they slide together, it is called a transform fault boundary, and no new crust is created, but earthquakes are common.

10: Along the Northwest coast of the United States, the Cascade Mountains are constantly being formed where the North American plate and the Juan de Fuca plate are colliding. Along their convergent boundary, the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate because the Juan de Fuca is a dense oceanic plate. This is called oceanic-continental subduction. When the Juan de Fuca plate subducts, the mantle above the plate melts forming magma, which then fills chambers under volcanoes. Magma can rise to Earth’s surface within active volcanoes. Volcanoes that form from subduction form linear volcanic ranges, like the Cascade Range. In the Pacific Northwest, volcanoes erupt and earthquakes can occur relatively often. Volcanoes erupt because of shifts in tectonic plates and pressure from new magma being formed. The violence of the eruption is dependent on dissolved gases in the magma, the composition of the magma, and the temperature of the magma. Earthquakes occur along only convergent plate boundaries because of stress that builds between plates.

11: Plate Tectonic Setting of the Cascades

12: Approximately 7,700 years ago Mount Mazama erupted and collapsed to form the caldera, which is now home to Crater Lake. Thirty-two years ago Mount St. Helens erupted. Both of these volcanoes are located in the Cascade Range in the Northwestern U.S. and have formed along the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area that encompasses the entire Pacific Ocean where extremely explosive volcanoes reside. Before Mount St. Helens erupted, she formed a huge bulge on her north flank from rising magma. This bulge and 10,000 precursory earthquakes were signs of a coming eruption. When both volcanoes erupted, both had lateral explosions which produced huge columns of gas and ash that traveled across the country. They both had a series of eruptions, but Mount Mazama’s last blast was nearly 420 times more powerful than Mount St. Helens' entire eruption. During Helens’ eruption, a landslide on the north side of the summit caused the largest landslide recorded in U.S. history. After her landslide, ash escaped from the volcano and pyroclastic flows raced down her sides. This occurred during Mount Mazama’s eruption as well. Both volcanoes lost significant height in their eruptions; Mount Mazama formed a caldera now known as Crater Lake.

15: When Mount Mazama erupted 7,700 years ago, it initiated from a vent on the volcano's northeast side. A mile wide column of ash and pumice erupted into the sky collapsing in a series of superheated pyroclastic flows that covered most of southern Oregon. Fractures formed on all sides of the volcano, and pyroclastic flows eventually raced outward in all directions from the volcano. The magma chamber under Mount Mazama completely emptied, causing the 12,000 foot composite cone to collapse in on itself, forming a caldera. The caldera is 5 by 6 miles wide. After the collapse, small eruptions over 2,000 years time formed Wizard Island, a cinder cone within the caldera, and Merriam Cone and the Central Platform, both below the lake level today. Over time, snow melt and rainfall slowly filled the caldera forming the deepest lake in the U.S. and the seventh-deepest lake in the world.

16: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory

17: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Forensic scientists can save endangered, threatened, and protected animals' lives by prosecuting those who kill animals for illegal reasons. Scientists perform crime scene investigations just like in police crime laboratories. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Forensic laboratory is located in Ashland, Oregon, where we spent nearly a week in June 2012 for STEM Expeditions. During our trip, several women taught us about the responsibilities of scientists and illustrators who work within the forensics team. We also learned of the story of Charger, an elk who lived in Yellowstone National Park. He was killed for his antlers illegally. Charger's death was a mystery until a taxidermist called the Forensics Lab and announced someone had given him the antlers to mount. The murderer was prosecuted and given 8 months in jail for his crime. The beauty of wildlife forensics is that Charger's murderer will now be less likely to kill and be prosecuted again. My iNaturalist: http://www.inaturalist.org/observations/rpatrick

18: Animal Tracking - Oregon | Observer: Joe Kreuzman Date: 21 June 2012 Location: Soda Mountain Wilderness, OR Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Hoofprint of deer. Track made in dusty area; rocks have fallen into track

19: Observer: Reed Patrick Date: 21 June 2012 Location: Land Bridge, Soda Mountain Wilderness, OR Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Hoofprint of black doe.

20: Observer: Reed Patrick Date: 21 June 2012 Location: Soda Mountain Wilderness, OR Habitat: Herbaceous plants Track Description: 'Spit' made from spittle bug nymphs during nesting season to hide themselves from predators. Spit found in small succulent plant.

21: Observer: Joe Kreuzman Date: 20 June 2012 Location: Soda Mountain Wilderness, OR Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Adult bear trail in tall grass from around 5 am early morning.

22: Observer: Reed Patrick Date: 20 June 2012 Location: Soda Mountain Wilderness, OR Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Bones of (most likely) a deer. Found by stream lying in tall grass on black rocks. Mouse bites were visible on bone.

23: Animal Tracking - Ohio | Observer: Sandy Willmore Date: 25 June 2012 Location: Duck Aviary, NAPLS, Nature Preserve, OH Habitat: Dry fields Track Description: 4 killdeer eggs; white with black speckles and tear-drop shaped. Each egg one inch long and half inch wide. Nest was flat and made of dried plant material. Eggs were covered by mother killdeer until she was scared away.

24: Observer: Joe Letsche Date: 25 June 2012 Location: Duck Aviary, NAPLS Nature Preserve, OH Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Footprint of raccoon in muddy area. Two inches long and two inches wide. Toes are rounded; small visible claw marks.

25: Observer: Reed Patrick Date: 25 June 2012 Location: Duck Aviary, NAPLS Nature Preserve, OH Habitat: Wetlands Track Description: Footprint of muskrat. Three inches long and two and a half inches wide. Claws are visible, but track is old and disturbed.

26: Observer: Sandy Willmore Date: 25 June 2012 Location: Deep Water Basin NAPLS Nature Preserve, OH Habitat: Moist areas Track Description: (Most likely) a toad track. Found in the mud without corresponding trail. 3/4 inch long and 1/4 inch wide.

27: Observer: Sandy Willmore Date: 25 June 2012 Location: Swickard Woods NAPLS Nature Preserve, OH Habitat: Hardwood forest Track Description: Old bones from deer. Missing some bones. Approximately one year and 6 months old.

28: Digital Photography - Five Favorites | "Wooden Patterns" Reed Patrick Digital Photograph 18 June 2012

29: "Focusing on Crater Lake" Reed Patrick Digital Photograph 17 June 2012

30: "Chris Ryan on the Edge" Reed Patrick Digital Photograph 17 June 2012 | Photo Critique: The deep blue of the water and light blue in the sky contrast with Chris' royal blue t-shirt. The height of Chris is equal to the height of the mountain on the right side of the photo, which balances the photo. This photo exaggerates the beauty of Crater Lake and its vibrancy. The snow gives the appearance that the photo is overexposed.

31: "Earthing" Reed Patrick Digital Photograph 20 June 2012

32: "Out of Space" Reed Patrick Digital Photography 21 June 2012

33: Digital Photography

53: Crater Lake 2012

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About This Mixbook

  • Title: Focusing on Crater Lake
  • I made this book for STEM Expedition, a class in which we learned animal tracking, digital photography, and drawing skills. We took a week-long trip to Crater Lake and Medford, Oregon.
  • Tags: STEM Expeditions, STEM, animals, tracking, art, digital photography, photography, nature, class
  • Published: over 5 years ago