S: group 19 baby book
BC: April to May 2012
FC: Group #19 Baby Book
1: baby book content | planting seed structure and function germination young plant structure and function growth pollination nutrient and water delivery food delivery life cycle threshing family relationships
4: In class we began planting by putting a wick through the bottom of the film canister. we filled the film canister with about a third of the way with soil, then we put in two fertilizer pellets. We then filled the canister almost to the top and put the seeds in the soil. We then covered the seed slightly. After covering the seed we started constructing what we were going to put the canisters in.
5: To construct the container we took a deli container and fed a strip of felt through the bottom and had it so the ends would dangle after being put through the slots. We then put another square of felt on top of the strip that was thread through so that the wicks would absorb the water that the felt brought up from the container below that was holding the water so we wouldn't have to remember to water them daily.
6: We then set the containers underneath the light. We made observations each day on how the growth of our plants were coming along. Finally when the plants were large enough and were taking up more water we changed out the bottom of the container for a larger one that would hold more water for its growing needs. We then took more observations of their growth until it was not needed.
8: Germination is a process that a seed goes through. In order for a seed to start germination there has to be the right conditions available. There needs to be water, oxygen and a suitable temperature. when the seed uptakes water until the point that is swells it is called imbibition. when the seed swells to the point that the seed coat bursts if the temperature is right the radicle and hypocotyl emerge. soon the cotyledons will emerge and the seed will now be able to begin photosynthesis. | Germination
9: Germination Continued | When evaluating the germination process in class we discovered that the even though we were all using the same materials that not all our plants were going to be the same. In class we saw how different variables could affect a lab and for this lab we found that the seed was what was differing our results. If the germination process was not fully completed the seed may have died which happened to one of our plants also making us wonder about our results. | variables | same | Different | seed | water light temperature nutrients soil containers
10: Plant Structures
11: terminal bud | function | The terminal bud is where most of the growing takes place, and it also restraints the growth of other buds keeping the plant form becoming bushy.
12: Node and Internode | Functions | A node is the part of the stem from which the leaves grow and a plant can have many of them. The internode is the part of the stem between nodes. | The blue arrow points to the internode and the green arrow point to the node.
13: Bud | Function | The function of the bud is to protect the flower that is inside.
14: Cotyledon | Function | the cotyledons are the plants first two leaves and they provide nutrients for the germinating plant to survive. They also help with the process of photosynthesis.
15: Primary and Lateral Roots | Function | The function of primary roots is to uptake water and nutrients into the plant. The function of lateral roots is to anchor the plant in the ground but also to uptake water and nutrients like the primary root. | the blue arrow points to the lateral root and the green points to the primary root
16: Root Hairs | Function | To increase surface area to help absorb water and minerals from the soil.
17: Leaf | Function | The function of leaves is to absorb sunlight to manufacture plant sugars through photosynthesis to help nourish the plant
19: Cuticle and Dermal Tissue | Function | The function of dermal tissue is to protect the soft tissues inside the plant and to control the interactions with the plants surroundings. The function of the cuticle is to prevent water loss and sunscald by the build up of cutin
20: The plant life cycle
21: Day 1-2 | After a couple of days after planting and watering. The seed begins to germinate. The seed starts to swell from the uptake of water and the seed coat cracks
22: The hypocotyl starts to push though the soil and pulling the cotyledons up with it. Also the seed coat is shed and falls to the soil | Day 3
23: Day 4 | The hypocotyl grows taller because the plant is growing toward the light it needs. Also the roots are growing and going deeper into the soil to anchor the seedling
24: The true leaves are beginning to grow and the stem continues to grow as well form the very tip of the plant other wise known as the meristem. Also the root hairs are starting to grow and absorb nutrients and water from the soil surrounding the plant nurturing the plant | Days 5-8
25: The plant switches from leaf and stem growth to flower development for reproduction. The buds of the flower start to grow from the meristem. | Days 9-13
26: The flowers start to bloom. Pollination starts to occur from the exchange of pollen from flower to flower. If the pollen lands on the pistil of another flower a tube is grown in the pistil that leads to where the eggs of the plant are held. The sperm from the pollen then move down toward the eggs | Days 14-17
27: Days 18-20 | Eggs that got fertilized are growing and starting to develop into embryos of new seeds. Also the pistil is becoming larger and will become the seed pod that holds the seeds.
28: The flower petals are starting to wilt away and fall away from the seed pods. A small embryo is inside each seed waiting for the right conditions to germinate (water and warmth) into a plant and start the cycle over again. The seeds can either be planted or stored once they have been dried out | Days 21-40
30: Plant Growth
32: The meristem is the part of the tip of the root that is held responsible for the division of new cells.
34: Just a few hormones...
35: 1)Stimulates cell elongation 2)Stimulates cell division in the cambium and, in combination with cytokinins in tissue culture 3)Stimulates differentiation of phloem and xylem 4)Stimulates root initiation on stem cuttings and lateral root development in tissue culture
37: Gibberellin Helps growth in the stem, and there are 126 known gibberellin. There are two main classes they are divided into. Also they promote germination of seeds.
38: Primary Growth
39: Secondary Growth
41: Primary growth is the growth of the real leaves and roots. Secondary growth is the growth of the cotyledons and starter roots.
43: Tropism: is a growth movement determined by a stimulus, like the sun.(In this case a lamp.) | Plant 1 is leaning. This is because the plant was not directly under the light like the others, so it had to reach for the light to grow.
44: water, food, & nutrient delivery & transport
45: 1) Phloem: is the living tissue in the plant that carries nutrients, mainly sugar, to all parts of the plant. | 2) Xylem: is a woody plant tissue that carries the water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
46: 3) Stomata/ Gard cells: are like little mouths on leaves that exchange gases.
47: 4) Transpiration: is water leaving the plant & going into the atmosphere. | 5) Vascular Tissue: is the tissue that the water and nutrients run through, & has both xylem & phloem in it.
49: Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the reproductive parts of a flower to another. In class we made bee sticks to help us pollinate our plants. We glued dead bees to toothpicks and let them sit until our plants were ready to pollinate. Once our plants were ready , we used the bee sticks to collect pollen from the stigmas of one flower to the anthers and pistils of a flower on our plant.
50: Plant Height Once our plants were planted we kept track of how high our plants were growing! | The blue line represents Miranda's plant. The Green is Madi's plant. Orange is Heidi's plant and Red is Christina's plant.
51: Pistil Lengths | Heidi's Plant | Madi's Plant
52: Pistil Length Continued | Once our flowers were pollinated pistils started to grow, the pistil hold the new seeds for the next generation of fast plants. The charts show how pistils on our plants have grown since pollination was completed. | Christina's Plant
53: Miranda's Plant's Pistil Length
54: Our plants' flowers have multiples of 4 and multiples of 5 | When the cotyledons first emerged, each plant in our group had two. | Since our plants had two cotyledons and the flower petals had multiples of four and five, our plants are Dicots.
55: Monocots and Dicots | Differences between monocots and dicots can be seen in many different regions of flowering plants. Monocots will have once cotyledon in their seeds while dicots will have two. Dicot leaves have branched veins and monocots have parallel veined leaves. Flowers have petals in multiples o three if they are monocots while dicot flowers have petals in muliples of four or five.
56: This flower is dicot | This leaf is a dicot. | While this flower is a monocot. | This leaf is a monocot. | Examples of Monocots and Dicots
57: Monocot | Dicot
58: Plant Types | Petite/AstroPlant (Heidi's) The plant is reduced to a height of 5-15 cm.
59: Non purple stem, hairless (Christina;s) The plant has light green leaves with a non purple stem. There are also no hairs.
60: Non-purple stem, yellow-green leaf or the Non-purple stem, hairless (Madi's)
61: Purple Stem, Hairy (Miranda's) The plant has a darker green leaf. It also has root hairs.
63: Threshing | Threshing is when we had to remove the seeds from the seed pods. We first measured our seed pods which ranged from 1-5 centimeters. We then picked the seed pods off the plants and opened then so we could collect the seeds inside. As a group our plants made a total of 59 seeds. The new seeds will then be stored so they can be used next year!
64: Sources Any pictures not drawn or taken by us are from... www.goggle.com & www.bing.com