FC: Invasive Species of PA | By: Derick DeCamp, Megan Christie, Adam Kramer, and Brittany Marshall
2: Giant Hogweed | Heracleum mantegazzianum | Sap can cause burning blisters. | Stands about 2-5m high. | Brit
3: Is a native to central Asia. It was brought to the U.S. for Ornamental reasons. | Controlled by chemical.
4: Purple Loosestrife | Lythrum salicaria, L virgatum | A tall multi-stemmed, perennial fern that can grow up to 10ft | Introduced for ornamental and medicinal purpose | Brit
5: Is a native to both Europe and Asia | The most common method of removal is physical removal
6: Japanese Stilt grass | Microstegium vimineum | An annual grass, flowers in late-summer | Was accidental introduced | Best way to remove is by hand | Brit
7: Common reed | Polygonum caspidatum | Tall perennial grass with creeping rhizomes that may make a dense vegetative mat. | it was accidentally introduced to pa | physically removing the plant is the best method | Brit
8: Johnson grass | Sorghum halaphense | A tall perennial grass, flowers occur in loose | brought as a forage crop, is a native to the Mediterranean region | easy to control using herbicides | Brit
9: Shattercane | Sorghum halaphense | Can be cultivated for food. Is native to Africa | is a annual summer grass | brought to the U.S. as a forage crop | best method is a chemical removal | Brit
10: Common name: Garlic mustard Genus Species Name: Alliaria petiolata | Garlic mustard is a biennial herb that grows to about 3 feet tall. The small, white 4-petaled flowers appear in early spring. It spreads aggressively in woodlands by seed. | brought from Europe in the 1800’s for medicinal and to be used for food. | Garlic mustard is eradicated by using chemicals or by pulling out the roots. This fits into the Physical and Chemical part of the pyramid.
11: Common Name: Musk thistle Genus Species Name: Carduus nutans | Is a noxious weed, whose leaves have an almost winged appearance. It is one of the first thistles to bloom in the spring. | Originated in Europe and came to America in 1852 | Musk thistle is eradicated through the use of approved herbicide and through the limiting of its chance to spread. This fits into the Cultural and Chemical part of the pyramid.
12: Common Name: Canada thistle Genus Species Name: Cirsium arvense | Is a large coarse plant with spiny leaves and is a noxious weed | Accidentally introduced through seed shipments from Europe in the 1600’s | Canada thistle can be controlled by maintaining the health of the land or through the use of herbicides. This would be Physical and Chemical on the pyramid.
13: Common Name: Bull thistle Genus Species Name: Cirsium vulgare | Bull thistle is a biennial species that reproduces by seed and is a noxious weed. The leaves are pubescent on both sides unlike the Canada thistle. | It came to America by accident from Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. | Natural predators where found and moved to areas contaminated by thistle. This is the Biological part of the pyramid.
14: Common Name: Jimson Weed Genus Species Name: Datura stramonium | An annual plant reaching one to five feet tall. Stems are smooth, green to purplish with alternate, simple, coarsely toothed leaves three to eight inches long. The fruits are short prickly capsules about one inch in diameter. | Was documented to be in America in 1676, Was used by the Native Americans for medicinal purposes. | To eradicate the plant, pulling of the plant and preventing the spread of seeds is the first line of defense, if the infestation gets bad herbicide may need to be used. Pyramid parts Cultural, Physical, and chemical.
15: Common Name: Goatsrue Genus Species Name: Galega officinalis | plant tends to form a crown and ranges 2-6 feet tall. Mature leaves are alternate, odd-pinnate with six to ten pairs of leaflets. | Introduced to the western United States in the late 1800s as a possible forage crop. Originated in Europe and Asia. | Physical and Chemical controls are used
16: Autumn Olive | Elaeagnus umbellata Shrub that can reach about 3-20 feet in height with throny branches | Came to Pa from birds and other animals They are physically or mechanically removing them.
17: Amur Honeysuckle | Lonicera maackii A woody perennial shrub up to 5 meters in height and grows in an ovate shape. | It came into Pa through wind and water. The plant is being physically removed.
18: Marrow's Honeysuckle Shrub | Lonicera morrowii small shrub , which is round in size | They got to Pa by people for the use of decoration. These invasive plants are being physically dug up from their habitats
19: Standish Honeysuckle | Lonicera standishii Small shrub with short small round leaves | They were brought to Pa for decorative reasons They are being biologically replaced
20: Tartarian Honeysuckle | Lonicera tatarica Short shrub like bush with twig like branches | It was brought to Pa through other plants that evolved These plants are being treated in a cultural way
21: Multiflora Rose Shrub | Rosa multiflora A shrub that can grow up to 15 ft in height, throny, with green to red arching cane like stems | This invasive was brought here to attract wildlife We are trying to use a biological factor to elliminate this plant
22: Norway Maple Acer plantanoides | they release chemicals in the ground which creates muddy runoff. | It was originally introduced into North America by someone who received seedlings from someone in London in 1756 | It is no longer ornamental. It fits into the cultural category
23: Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima | spreads when the trees are cut down | Tree of heaven was introduced in America around 1748 by a Pennsylvania gardener and during the gold rush years in California by Chinese immigrants | New sprouts or seedlings should be treated as soon as possible after detection so they will not rebuild root and seed reserves. It fits into the physical category.
24: oriental bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus | 3.General Description: the vines grow around the tree and have been known to strangle the tree | Introduced into the U.S. in the 1860s as an ornamental plant | Vines can be pulled out by the root and removed from the site. If fruits are present, they should be bagged and disposed of. It’s in the physical category
25: Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica | it will spread itself if it has enough room to grow | it came from japan to be used for ground cover and the smell of the fruit. | Hand pulling them carefully or treated with and herbicide would limit the distribution. It fits in the chemical and physical category
26: mile a minute vine Polygonum perfoliatum | crowds out native species | introduced accidentally as a contaminant of ornamental stock | Eradication of mile-a-minute weed is difficult requiring follow-up treatment of new plants until the germination period is over. It is in the chemical category.
27: kudzu Pueraria Iobata | climbs over trees or shrubs and grows so rapidly, it kills them by heavy shading | Kudzu was introduced from Japan into the United States at the Japanese pavilion in the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia | A prescribed fire can be used to be burned and an application of herbicides can be used. It fits in the chemical and biological category
28: Work | n.d. December 2012