S: Mammals by Jared, Patrick, Maggie, and Kyle
BC: Thanks for watching and remember... we're all Coco for Cocoa Puffs!
FC: Mammals | Brought to you by your fellow classmates: | Jared T., Patrick D., Maggie G., and Kyle G.
1: Mammals First Appear | Mammals first appeared on the earth two hundred and seventy million years ago. The first mammals were reptile-mammal like. They looked a lot like reptiles, but because of somethings like the shapes of their teeth separates them from the rest. Unfortunately though, these mammals became extinct 160 million years ago. After that, about 65 million years before now large mammals started to evolve. The more and more they evolved, the more specialized they became living either on land or in the water.
2: Kingdom-Animalia | Phylum-Chordata | Sub Phylum-Vertebata | Class-Mammals | Order-Monotremes, Marsupials, Placental
3: Biomes of Mammals | Mammals are found in almost all environments such as the rain forest, desert, grassland, deciduous, boreal Forest, Tundra, mountains and ice, freshwater, and marine biomes. | Marine | Low Woodlands | Fresh Water | Rain Forest
4: Reproduction and Caring for Young | Mammals have internal fertilization. Though some develop inside eggs, most develop inside their mother's belly and are never contained in a shell. All mammals feed their young with milk made by mammary glands. Young mammals are usually helpless for quite helpless for a extended period of time. Many are born without fur and are blind for quite a while. Newborns normally stay with their mother for a year or more.
5: Marsupials | There are four commonly known marsupials: Kangaroos, Koalas, Wallabies, and Opossums. They are mammals who give live birth and their young are kept in their pouches until they are at a mature enough stage to live on their own. THey are mainly found in New Guinea, South America, and Australia. Marsupials have a very short gestation period (the period of time between fertilization and birth). | Opossums - The only Marsupials on North America -Omnivores -Nocturnal -Prehensile Tails -Play dead when threatened | Kangaroos -Largest Marsupials -Found in Australia -Some are over 2 meters tall -Young called Joey.
6: Predator/Prey Feeding Habits | The Cheetah | eats prey. Its prey are any lesser animals such as antelope, deer, birds and many other meat filled species. | is eaten by lion, leopard and hyena.
7: Symmetry in Animals | Mammals have bilateral symmetry which is when a line can be split down the middle of an object to make it into halves that mirror each other. Bilateral symmetry helps mammals to move more quickly and efficiently than most other animals that do not have bilateral symmetry. Bilateral symmetry helps the mammal to obtain food and avoid predators.
8: Nervous System and Senses | The nervous system and senses of animals receive info about its surroundings and plan its few moves. The brains of mammals let them learn, remember, behave in complex ways. The senses of mammals are highly developed to the ways animals live. Some have huge eyes so they can see in the dark. Others have a great sense of smell to track prey or smell predators. While still others can use hearing to navigate.
9: How Mammals Obtain Oxygen | All mammals breathe with lungs even if you live in the ocean. Mammals are able to breathe in and out because of a combined action of rib muscles and a big muscle called a diaphragm that helps mammals breathe. In the lungs there is a large moist area where oxygen can dissolve and move into the blood stream. Mammals have a four-chambered heart with a two-looped circulation throughout the body. One of the loops | pumps oxygen-poor blood from the heart to lungs and then starts going back to the heart. The second one pumps the oxygen-rich blood towards the tissues of the mammals bodies from the heart. After it goes to the tissues it comes back to the heart.
10: Fur and Hair | All mammals have fur or hair at some point of their lives. Fur and hair helps stabilize their body temperature in cold weather. Hair and fur is made of dead strands of cells held together by by the same material that strengthens feathers. The thickness of hair varies from animal to animal. Some have only a few bristles while others can have a whole coat. Also, the type of climate depends on how much they have; the colder, the thicker the coat.
11: Teeth | Mammals' teeth are adapted to chew food into little bits so it's easy to digest. Unlike reptiles and fish, who have one type of teeth, mammals have four types, incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Incisors are flat-edge teeth for biting off, and cutting food. Canines are pointed | for stabbing and tearing, and premolars and molars are for grinding and shredding food to bits. The shape, size, and hardness, show what the animal eats. Ex. The canines of carnivores are large and pointed. Herbivores' teeth are made for grinding and mashing plants.
12: Movement | One of the many important function of the nervous system is to direct and control the complex movement of a mammal. Most mammals have four limbs to help them walk and run. Some other types of four-limbed mammals have specialized way of moving. The kangaroos hop from place to place to get where they need to go. Some animals swing from tree branch to tree branch. Some mammals like moles use their front limbs to dig through the soil. For mammals that fly (like bats) have their front limbs as wings and for mammals that swim, their front limbs are flippers.
13: Monotremes | Monotremes are... | ~ | -mammals that lay eggs -There are two types of Monotremes, platypus and Spiny Anteaters | Spiny Anteaters have... -sharp spines -they eat ants -A female anteater lays up to 3 eggs in her pouch -When the baby's are 4-6 weeks old, they're spines start to bother the mom and she kicks them out of her pouch. | The Platypus has... -webbed feet -a bill and fur -feeds its young with milk | -They build burrows under water -Female lays eggs -The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks -After hatching, they lick milk from females pores
14: PLACENTAL MAMMAL S | The word Placental comes from placenta which is an organ in a pregnant mother that exchanges materials such as food and water between the mother and the developing embryo. Placental Mammals develop within the mother until they are ready to live independently on their own. Placental mammals are classified based on what /how they eat and adaptations for moving into the following categories: insect-eaters, flying mammals, primates, rodents, rabbits and hares, toothless mammals, carnivores, marine mammals, hoofed mammals, and mammals with trunks. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises, are all classified into marine mammals because they have adaptations for swimming. Cats, dogs, otters and seals are all carnivores because they have enlarged canine teeth. Primates (monkeys apes and humans) have larger brains and front-ward facing eyes. They also have opposable thumbs. Another characteristic unique to placental mammals is their gestation period. The larger the mammal, the longer the gestation period. For example: An elephant's gestation period is 21 months while a house mouse's gestation period is 20 days.
15: Era/Period | The first mammal to walk the planet was in Paleozoic Era and in the Carboniferous Period.