S: Natural Disasters
FC: Natural Disasters | Tyler & Alexis
1: Introduction ........................ 3 Tornado ............................. 4 Volcano ............................. 6 Hurricane ........................... 8 Earthquake ......................... 10 Preparation ........................ 12 Credits .............................. 14 | Table of Contents
2: NATURAL DISASTERS | An impending tornado darkens skies over the Colorado plains. Most tornadoes are 400 to 500 feet (122 to 152 meters) wide, travel four or five miles (six to eight kilometers) and last just a few minutes.
3: There are different types of natural disasters that occur in the world every year. The four major disasters are tornadoes, volcanoes, hurricanes, and earthquakes.
4: During the first week of April in 1974, 127 tornadoes occurred in the U.S. one ripped through a house that took a refrigerator and left a nearby table of drinking glasses unharmed! Tornadoes can be 65,000 feet tall and have a deadly center, The Eye of the Storm. Tornadoes normally form when a warm moist front and a cold dry front collide with falling pressure and variable winds. The F (Fujita) scale was used to measure wind speeds based on damage left behind after a tornado, and an F3 tornado had wind speeds between 158 and 206 miles an hour (254 to 332 kilometers an hour). The United States now uses the EF (Enhanced Fujita) scale, which takes more variables into account when assigning wind speeds to a tornado. An EF3 tornado now has wind speeds between 136-165 miles per hour (218-266 kilometers per hour), and the tornado pictured could be an EF3, EF4 or EF5. | Tornadoes
5: Tornado season starts in early spring, as the season goes on the storm front will go north and get even more violent. To stay safe during a tornado get into a closet with blankets, then lay down covering your head. | A category F3 tornado swirls across a South Dakota prairie. | An oncoming tornado coming at a camera.
6: Did you know, the word volcano comes from the Roman god, Vulcan? Volcanoes usually form when two plates collide on plate boundaries. When they erupt, magma from the lava dome rises then; it explodes or slowly oozes out of the top. The eruption depends on the shape of the volcano. | Volcanoes | An erupting volcano spewing ash.
7: If a volcano doesn't erupt for 200 years then scientists classify that Earth vent to be dormant. If any evacuation orders are given, people must follow. When lava mixes with water, the lava eventually cools making land!
8: “Hurricane” came from the Spanish word, Huracan which means evil spirit weather god! A Hurricane is a violent storm that can ruin peoples communities. Hurricanes can occur when a cold front and warm front, if they meet then a hurricane will form. If you live near The Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, or the Pacific Ocean. Meteorologists are people who study the hurricanes. If you live above the equator then be more prepared in summer. | Hurricanes
9: Those who are most in danger are those below the equator, where hurricanes can happen at any time. These evil weather gods are given human names. These names are reused unless a very violent storm comes, then a new name is added. To prepare, secure windows, doors, and turn off all electronic devices. | A satellite photo taken on August 28, 2008, shows three storms in the Atlantic at the same time: Fay, Gustav, and Hannah. Tropical Storm Fay is dissipating over the United States. Tropical Storm Gustav, which would develop into a hurricane, is between Cuba and Haiti. Tropical Storm Hanna, which would also become a hurricane, is still in the Atlantic. Storms progress from tropical depressions to tropical storms and then to hurricanes, distinctions based on wind speed.
10: Earthquakes | The opening in the ground from an earthquake.
11: What shakes the ground normally around the fault line? An earthquake is the release of pressure in 2 or more plates that collide. Sometimes when an earthquake occurs steam bursts out of the ground with a mixture of mud or dirt, small gravel, and sometimes even water. If you are on a fault line you will probably experience one at one time or another but there really isn't a time of year in particular that they happen. If an earthquake ever occurs get under something sturdy, and watch out for anything that will fall. Hold on and don't get up until shaking stops. The biggest earthquake in the U.S. was in Prince William Sound, Alaska, booming at a 9.2 on the Richter scale. If you were in Missouri on February 20th, 2012 in the “Boot heel” then you experienced an earthquake, which could even be felt from Jefferson City!
12: Preparation | This page is only about how to stay safe and how to prepare for the disasters in the book. | Tornado: To stay safe during a tornado get into a closet with blankets, then lay down covering your head. | Volcano: If any evacuation orders are given, you should follow them. wear protective clothing such as long pants and a long sleeve shirt. | Earthquake: If an earthquake ever occurs get under something sturdy, and watch out for anything that will fall. don't get up until shaking stops and watch out for after shocks.
13: Hurricane: To prepare, secure windows, doors, and turn off all electronic devices. | You should always have a food supply ready in case of emergency, canned foods and a can opener. You should also have one gallon of water for every person in your house and a supply for at least 10 days.
15: Credits | Photos and information from, "Forces of Nature -- National Geographic." Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living - National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2012.