S: Natural Disasters
FC: By Emily & Kulvir | NATURAL DISASTERS
1: Natural Disaster ...............2 Volcanoes ...............................4 Earthquakes ........................6 Bushfires ..............................8 Tornadoes ...............................10 Preparation ...........................12 Credits .....................................14 | Table of Contents
2: There are many different types of natural disasters that commonly occur in the world. The four most common ones are volcanoes, earthquakes, bushfires and droughts.
3: Disasters can cause stress related issues lot the victims who were part of it, the services and communities that help and government officials.
5: VOLCANOES A volcano is a mountain with an opening that shoots out hot magma, gases and ash from the centre of the earth. The earth's crust is made up of tectonic plates. these plates fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. When two plates move apart, hot magma, also known as lava, rises up between them. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. if the amount of magma is large enough, it rises above the surface of the ocean and creates an island, an erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes and mudflows.
6: An earthquake is a sudden shaking or shock of the earth's surface. They are the result of a release of stress under the earth. Under the earth's crust there are about twenty tectonic plates that are continuously passing each other. The tectonic plates push together and due to the stress that it causes, a slippage may occur. This results in a massive release of energy in the form of waves along the earth's crust. These waves last a very short amount of time (usually less than a minute). However, this causes violent movement which can result in a tremendous amount of damage. Furthermore, tremors may follow the initial earthquake as the plates remain unstable for 1-2 days. The earthquakes are measured using scale form 0-10 called the Richter Scale, 10 being the strongest. Earthquakes are very dangerous but are not the cause of the deaths that occur, the losses of lives are mainly caused by the buildings that fall down. More than one million earthquakes shake the world each year. | EARTHQUAKES
9: BUSHFIRES | A bushfire is an uncontrollable fire often occurring in open land areas. They can destroy houses, farms and other resources. Wildfires often begin unnoticed, but they spread quickly burning bushes, trees and plants. the most common causes of bushfires are lightning, volcanoes, drought and humans. four out of five bushfires are caused by humans. Bushfires are common around the Summer and Autumn months and during droughts when fallen branches, leaves and other materials can dry out and become highly flammable. Bushfires are extremely hard to control. they can spread very fast and destroy many things in it's path, which makes it very important to have a fire safety plan.
10: TORNADOES | A tornado is a violent column of air that is formed during a thunderstorm. Violent tornadoes can cause tremendous destruction with wind speeds of up to 482 kilometres per hour. The wind coming into a thunderstorm starts a swirl and forms a funnel. The air in the funnel spins faster and faster, creating a low pressure area. The severe thunderstorms that produce tornadoes must have cold polar air and moist tropical air. Also, the atmosphere must be extremely unstable. Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year and any time of the day. In an average year, 1000 tornadoes are reported. Tornadoes are very dangerous and can suck up anything in it's way including large objects. They claim lives all over the world and ruin the homes of the victims that are involved.
12: Preparation | This page is only about how to stay safe and how to prepare for the disasters in the book. | Tornado: To stay safe during a tornado get into a closet with blankets, then lay down covering your head. | Volcano: If any evacuation orders are given, you should follow them. wear protective clothing such as long pants and a long sleeve shirt. | Earthquake: If an earthquake ever occurs get under something sturdy, and watch out for anything that will fall. don't get up until shaking stops and watch out for after shocks.
13: Bushfire: to prepare for a bushfire, make sure you have a fire safety kit prepared and that you hose down the house and areas around it. Also clean the gutters. | You should always have a food supply ready in case of emergency, canned foods and a can opener. You should also have one gallon of water for every person in your house and a supply for at least 10 days.
14: Credits | Photos and information from, "Forces of Nature -- National Geographic." Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living - National Geographic. National Geographic, 7 Mar. 2012.
15: Learn about volcanoes: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Outreach/AboutVolcanoes/framework.html Tornadoes: http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-tornado.htm Bushfires: http://clearlyexplained.com/nature/earth/disasters/bushfires.html Earthquakes: http://www.ema.gov.au/www/ema/schools.nsf/Page/Get_The_FactsEarthquakes