BC: Edible "wild" plant native to Ohio: Bonus # 2 | Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Origin: Native to Ohio | Conditions of growth: Requires direct sun, but can grow in many different types of soil. It can be found almost anywhere with a temperate climate.
FC: Plantastic Adventure | Tyler Ross Period 7,8,9 | Ellen, R. (2006, May 10). Love of lilacs. In Flickr. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aricee/149218259.
1: Poisonous Plants of Ohio: Entry # 1 | Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans | Urushiol is the active ingredient in poison ivy that causes a rash or irritation on contact. It can be identified by its exact number of three leaves. Poison ivy can also be found in the form of a vine. | Origin: United States Conditions of growth: Usually found along the edges of woodlands and in forested areas. | Epstein, D. L. (n.d.). Watch out for poison ivy. In Greater Maryland Better Business Bureau. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://greatermd.bbb.org/watch-out-for-poison-ivy-/. Mason, J. (n.d.). Poison Ivy. In Great Plains Nature Center. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.gpnc.org/poison.htm.
2: Poison Sumac Toxicodendron vernix | Poison sumac has 7-9 leaves per stem and is a flowering plant. Just like poison ivy, poison sumac's active toxin is urushiol. But unlike poison ivy, poison sumac is very rare and is only found in a very specific environment. | Poisonous Plants of Ohio: Entry #1 | Origin: Northeastern and Southeastern United States Conditions of growth: Found in wetlands and close to ponds where its roots are submerged in water. | Cook, W. (2003, June 6). Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix). Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.duke.edu/~cwcook/trees/tove.html. Sachs, J. (2006). In The Poison Sumac Site. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.poison-sumac.org/.
3: Poison Oak Toxicodendron pubescens | Poisonous Plants of Ohio: Entry #1 | Origin: United States/North Carolina Conditions of growth: Found in dry areas near forests and thickets. | Poison oak is very similar to poison ivy in that its active poisonous chemical is urushiol. Poison oak also has leaves in groups of threes. However unlike poison ivy, poison oak cannot take the form of a vine. | Poison Oak Rash Pictures (2011, August 24). In Poison Oak Rash Pictures. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://poisonoakrashpictures.com/. Russell, A. B. (1997). Poisonous Plants: Toxicodendron pubescens. In Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Toxicpu.htm.
4: Gymnosperm-male gametophyte Entry # 2 | Colorado Blue Spruce Picea pungens Origin: Western United States/ Rocky Mountains | Conditions of growth: Grows at high altitudes usually along streams in mountain valleys. Requires very moist soil and full sun. The blue spruce is the most drought resistance of the spruces. | Beaulieu, D. (2011). Colorado Blue Spruce Trees. In About.com Landscaping. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://landscaping.about.com/od/evergreentrees/p/blue_spruce.htm.
5: Gymnosperm-female gametophyte Entry # 3 | Eastern Cape Blue Cycad Encephalartos horridus Origin: South Africa | Conditions of growth: Adapted to temperate and subtropical climates. Requires full sun. | Le Roux, L. (2006, April). Encephalartos horridus. In PlantZAfrica.com. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantefg/encephhorrid.htm.
6: Angiosperm-perfect flower Entry # 4 | Knock-out Rose Rosa radrazz Origin: Selective Rose Breeding in Georgia, USA Growing Conditions: Moist soil and full sun. | This rose is an example of a perfect flower because both the male and female gametophytes are present in the flower. The rose has both stamen and a pistil. | Evans, E. (2002). Roses: rosa kncok out. In North Carolina State University.edu. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/roses/knockout.htm.
7: Angiosperm-complete flower Entry # 5 | Chinese Hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Origin: China/India Conditions of growth: Needs full sun to partial shade and warm temperatures. It grows in all types of soil and can withstand high temperatures. | This Hibiscus is a complete flower because it has a pistil, stamen, sepals, and petals. The definition for a complete flower is one that has all four of these flower parts, and thus the hibiscus is complete. | Burrell, C. (n.d.). Chinese Hibuscus, Hawaiian Hibiscus, Rose of China. In howstuffworks.com. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from: http://www.howstuffworks.com/chinese-hibiscus-hawaiian-hibiscus-rose-of-china.htm.
8: Dioecious Plant Entry # 6 | Ginkgo Ginkgo Balboa Origin: Eastern China Conditions of growth: Can be found growing anywhere in the world with moist, sandy, deep soil. Very versatile, but does require partial to full sun. | Ginkgoes are a type of diecious plant. Diecious plants are gymnosperms that produce male cones on one plant and female cones on another plant. In contrast, monoecious plants produce male and female cones on the same plant. | Chandler, B. (2000). Gingko - origins. In Imaginatorium.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://imaginatorium.org/sano/ginkgo2.htm.
9: Endosperm: Entry # 7 | Popcorn Zea Mays Everta Origin: Midwestern United States/Mexico Conditions of growth: Warm temperate climates with a range of different soil types. Requires frequent watering and direct sun. | Carter, P. R., Hicks, D. R., Doll, J. D., Schulte, E. E., Schuler, R., & Holmes, B. (n.d.). Popcorn. In NewCROP Resource Online. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/popcorn.html. Brazil Photo Gallery 2009 (2009, January). In Globalaginvestments.com. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from: http://www.globalaginvestments.com/GAIphotogallery/photogallerybrazil2009.html.
10: Plant that shows symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi: Entry # 8 | Southern Magnolia Magnolia Grandiflora Origin: Southern United States & China Conditions of growth: Grows in rich hammock soils on the border of river swamps. Often found in lowlands with moist soil and an abundance of shade. | The relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and the southern magnolia tree is symbiotic. The fungi is located on the roots and decomposes organic material in the soil. This increases the surface area of the tree's roots so that the tree can absorb more water and nutrients. In return the roots of the magnolia tree supply the fungus with organic nutrients. | Bowers, A. (n.d.). Southern magnolia. In Florida 4-H Forest Ecology. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/southern_magnolia/soutmagn.htm.
11: Monocot: Entry # 9 | Purple Sogo Orchid Phalaenopsis Sogo Vivien Origin: Philippines & Borneo | Conditions of Growth: Tropical climates with an abundance of water and shade. Phalaenopsis orchids will scorch in direct sunlight. | Paterson, C. (2007, January 7). How to Hand Pollinate Sogo Orchids. In eHow. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from: http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_7744787_hand-pollinate-sogo-orchids.html.
12: Dicot with compound leaf: Entry # 10 | White Ash Fraxinus americana Origin: United States & Canada | Conditions of growth: Rich, moist, and well drained soils. Resident of most hardwood forests and bottom lands near streams. | Bowers, A. (n.d.). White ash. In Florida 4-H Ecology. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from: http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/White_ash/whiteash.htm.
13: Dicot with simple leaf: Entry # 11 | Purple Waffle Plant Hemigraphis colorata exotica Origin: New Guinea | Conditions of growth: Shady tropical rain forest. Needs a warm climate and at least some indirect bright sun.
14: Bryophyte Entry # 12 | Hypnum Moss Origin: Worldwide Conditions of growth: Thrives in shady and moist environments. Typically grows on logs or between rocks close to water sources. | Shade Plants - Moss Acres Fern Moss and Other Shade Plants (2002). In Moss Acres. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from: http://www.mossacres.com/shade-plants.asp.
15: Vascular Seedless Plant: Entry # 13 | Horsetail Origin: Worldwide Conditions of growth: Watery areas with moist rich soil in the temperate northern hemisphere. Usually found in or right around rivers, streams, and marshes.
16: Edible Leaf: Entry # 14 | Paraguay Tea Llex paraguariensis Origin: Paraguay | Conditions of growth: Sun to partial shade in tropical humid climates. Requires well-drained slightly acidic fertile soil. | Bisby, F. A. (2007, November 8). Ilex paraguayensis (Paraguay Tea). In ZipcodeZoo.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/I/Ilex_paraguayensis/.
17: Edible root: Entry # 15 | Ginger Plant Zingiber officinale Origin: East Indes/China | Conditions of growth: Requires fertile soil and frequent rain. Ideal climate is tropical. Ginger only requires occasional sunlight.
18: Edible vegetable that is not a fruit: Entry # 16 | White Onion Allium Cepa Origin: Cultivation worldwide | Conditions of growth: Any fertile, well-drained soil in a temperate climate. White onion is frost tolerant and is a biennial plant. | Mouton, L. (n.d.). White onion growing in field. In Visualphotos.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.visualphotos.com/image/2x4431415/white_onion_growing_in_field. Kalb, T. (n.d.). Onion Cultivation. In AVRDC.org. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from: http://www.avrdc.org/LC/onion/practices.html.
19: Edible fruit: Entry # 17 | Valencia Orange Citrus sinensis Origin: Southern Vietnam | Conditions of growth: Requires a warm environment with sandy well-drained soil. Also needs direct sunlight. | Starr, J. (n.d.). How to Care for a Valencia Orange Tree. In gardenguides.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.gardenguides.com/79326-care-valencia-orange-tree.html.
20: Fruit that is specialized for dispersal other than digestion: Entry # 18 | Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Origin: Midwestern United States & Canada | Conditions of growth: Prefers rich, acidic, deep soils with moderate moisture. Prefers cool climates and partial sun, and is found in hardwood forests and meadows. | Ohio Tress- Sugar Maple (n.d.). In Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/trees/maple_sugar/tabid/5387/Default.aspx.
21: Heterotrophic plant Entry # 19 | American Pitcher Plant Sarracenia species Origin: Southeastern United States Conditions of growth: Found in coastal boggy areas with very moist soil. Requires partial sun and is acclimated to cold and dormant winter periods. | This plant is considered heterotrophic because it obtains its nutrients through both photosynthesis and through bugs that become trapped in its vessel. The pitcher plant must consume animals to augment its nitrogen supply while remaining autotrophic.
22: Parasitic Plant Entry # 20 | Mistletoe Phoradendron flavescens Origin: Eastern United States Conditions of growth: Grows on the branches and stems of Oak, Pine, and Apple trees. Obtains all of its nutrients and water from the host tree. | Mistletoe is a parasite because it uses its roots to penetrate its host and take nutrients and water from that host. Mistletoe's relationship with the host tree is beneficial to it but harmful to the host tree. In this way mistletoe is a parasite. | Williams, S. (n.d.). Mistletoe. In gardenline.usask.ca. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://gardenline.usask.ca/misc/mistleto.html. Eade, S. (2011, May 23). How to Grow Mistletoe from Seed. In The Garden of Eaden.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://gardenofeaden.blogspot.com/2011/05/how-to-grow-mistletoe-from-seed.html.
23: Modified Leaf Entry # 21 | Traveler's Tree Ravenala madagascariensis Origin: Madagascar | Conditions of growth: The Traveler's tree is a rain forest plant that doesn't require much sunlight. It does require a humid tropical climate with moist to wet soil. The giant leaf of the traveler's tree is modified to catch rain and funnel the water down into the plant via a hollow tube connected to the leaf. The leaf's large surface area helps it catch more rain.
24: Invasive non-native Ohio Plant Entry # 22 | Bush Honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica Origin: Japan, China, Korea & Russia Conditions of growth: Requires full sun, but can grow in almost any kind of soil. It has a high tolerance for a variety of different climates. | Bush honeysuckle was originally introduced as a ornamental plant for wildlife cover and to control soil erosion. Honeysuckle has become a problem because it suppresses the growth of native plants around it. It uses up much of the nutrients and water in the soil, and uses much of the available sunlight. This inhibits the growth of other plants around it. Bush honeysuckle has even been found to release chemicals into the soil that prevents the growth of native plants. | Williams, C. E. (1994). PCA Alien Plant Working Group - Exotic Bush Honeysuckles. In National Park Service.gov. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/loni1.htm. Beck, A. (2005, November). Bush Honeysuckle. In Bellarmine.edu. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.bellarmine.edu/faculty/drobinson/BushHoneysuckle.asp.
25: Cork of a deciduous tree: Entry # 23 | Blue Ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Origin: Midwestern United States | Conditions of growth: Found in limestone outcrops where is grows in dry soil with a high pH. It can adapt to many different environmental stresses and grows in full sun. | Ohio Trees- Blue Ash (n.d.). In Ohio Department of Natural Resources,gov. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/trees/ash_bl/tabid/5329/Default.aspx.
26: Epiphyte: Entry # 24 | Hawaiian Wedding Song Virgin Cattleya Orchid Orchidaceae cattleya Origin: Columbia & Mexico | Conditions of growth: Cattleyas are usually found high in the mountains of Central and South America. They can be found high up in many types of trees. They require partial sunlight, warm humid environments, and wet soil. | An epiphyte is a plant that grows attached to another plant. Epiphytes also have aerial roots that anchor the plant to the bark, branch, or other surface on which they grow. | Stevens, P. F., & Smidt, E. C. (n.d.). Cattleya 'Hawaiian Wedding Song Virgin'. In National Tropical Botanical Garden.org. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from: http://www.ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=2517&rid=879.
27: Plant with medicinal use: Entry # 25 | Aloe Plant Aloe Camerooni Origin: Zimbabwe & Sudan Conditions of growth: Requires direct sunlight and dry sandy soil. The plant is located in deserts and areas where the climate is dry and arid. | The extract from inside the aloe plant's leaves can be used to sooth burns or skin irritations.