S: Companion Animal Guide
FC: Companion Animal Guide
1: Animals make the lives of people more enjoyable. Animals have done so for hundreds of years. Animals and their products affect everyone. Animal care and production make up a large part of todays industry.
2: Animal Production Animal production is made up of four different groups they are. 1. Livestock 2. Companion Animals 3. Poultry 4. Other Animals | In this book we are going to focus on the companion animal group. A Companion Animal is an animal that is used to provide humans with fun and friendship through close association. Companion animals are often called pets. Some companion animals also provide services such as seeing eye dogs. | Chapter 1
3: Companionship and Pleasure To people companionship and pleasure are very important. A companion animal is an animal that helps people enjoy life more. Examples of these animals are Dogs, Cats, and Ornamental Fish. Domestication of Animals Animals have not always been tame and today not all animals are tame. Hundreds of years ago people found that it was easier to tend to animals than hunt them.
4: Animal Selection Animal Selection is choosing the animal that has he desired traits that you are looking for. Animal Nutrition Nutrition is the study of the kind of food an animal needs and how it is used by the animal this is important when selecting the right food for your animal. Animal Health Health is the condition in which the animal is free of disease and all parts of the animal are functioning correctly.
5: Animal Reproduction Animals must reproduce themselves. Reproduction is the process by which offspring are produced. Animal Environment A good environment is essential for an animal to survive and grow properly. Environment is the surroundings of an animal.
6: Animal Classification Animals are classified and named by specie, age, and sexual condition. This is very important in correctly identifying animals. The common name of an animal is the most popular way of identification. Example we refer to canines as dogs. The age of the animal gives another distinction because mature and immature animals have different names. Example a young canine is a puppy. The sexual condition of an animal is important. Animals are either male or female but, some animals are altered sexually known as neutering. Neutering is done to keep the animal from reproducing or to get desired traits. In males neutering is when the testicles are removed this is called castration. In females neutering is known as spaying this is when the ovaries are removed.
7: Chapter 2 | Animals as Organisms There are more than 1 million different kinds of animals on earth. Animals are very complex creatures. Just by studying the functions and needs of animals, people are better able to make there lives better. Most common animals have the same basic systems and needs.
8: Taxonomy and Names Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms. Most of the classifications done are due to physical characteristics. A Classification System is used to distinguish different animals from each other. Animals have both a common name and a scientific name. A common name is the name that is used everyday by anyone. The scientific name is based on the taxonomy of an animal species. Every animal has a two-part scientific name. The name is made up of the animals genus and species | Animal Names Animals are in the Kingdom Animalia. Organisms in the Kingdom Animalia share three traits. 1. Animals are made up of cells. 2. Animals can move about on their own. Known as locomotion. 3. Animals get their food from other sources.
9: Structures and Functions Within the Kingdom Animalia, animals are grouped many ways. This grouping is based on the structures and functions of the body. Animals are based on presence of vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones that form a segmented spinal column. Animals are in two different groups vertebrae and invertebrate. \Classes Animals are in several classes. The three main classes are birds, bony fish, and mammals.
10: The Structural Basis of Animals | The structural basis of animals begins with the cells. Cells are the basic structures of animals. They have a definite internal organization and relationship. Cells vary in shape, some are quite long and others are almost square. All animal cells have membranes that surround the internal parts and create a definite structure. | Cell Division Cell division is the process of a cell splitting into two cells. There are two types of cell division. 1. Mitosis is cell division for growth and repair. 2. Meiosis is cell division for sexual reproduction.
11: Cell Specialization Cell Specialization is the difference in cells that allows them to perform unique activities. Organs have several different kinds of cells. 1. Tissue - Groups of cells form tissues. A tissue is a cluster of cells that are alike in structure and activity. There are four types of tissue. 1. Epithelial-covers the body surfaces and lines the body cavities. 2. Connective-holds and supports body parts. 3. Muscular-creates movement of the body parts. 4. Nervous-responds to stimuli and transmits nerve impulses. 2. Organs - group of tissue with a similar function. 3. Organ System - a group of organs working together to carry out a specific activity.
12: Anatomy Anatomy and physiology are important in knowing how organisms live and go about life processes. Anatomy is the study of the form, shape, and appearance of animals. Physiology is the study of the functions of the cells, tissues, organs, and systems of organism. All animals have organ systems that maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the relative stability of the internal environment. | Chapter 3
14: Bones Bone is the hard, semirigid tissue that forms the skeleton of an animal. Bone structures give the body shape and support and protect the internal organs. Osteology is the study of bones. Bone is made up of minerals. Bone is activate tissue. Kinds of Bones Bones are classified by their structures and shape. The five shapes of bones are 1. Short-A short bone is cubed-shaped 2. Flat-A flat bone is two plates of compact bone with a layer of cancellous bone between. 3. Irregular-An irregular bone is a complex bone with varying shapes. 4. Sesamoid-Sesamoid bone is small and embedded in tendons. 5. Long-A long bone is a bone that is longer than it is wide.
15: Bone Structure Bone begins developing in an animal long before birth or hatching. The development process creates definite bone structure. Soft connective tissues are formed first then bone. This soft tissue is similar to cartilage. Cartilage is a rubbery tissue that is found at the end of the long bones.
16: Major Animal Systems As organisms animals have several systems that make the living condition possible. There are ten different systems that make up an animal. 1. Muscular- acquires materials and energy. 2. Skeletal- provides the framework for the body. 3. Digestive- breaks food into smaller parts that are used by the body. 4. Respiratory- governs gas exchange. 5. Circulatory- moves oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. 6. Excretory- rids the body of wastes. 7. Lymphatic- circulates a clear fluid known as lymph. 8. Nervous- coordinates body activities. 9. Integumentary- is the skin. 10. Reproductive- produces offspring.
17: Chapter 4 | People want animals to grow and be productive. This demands that the producer follow good animal management practices. Promoting good health among animals is a major part of animal management. | Animal Health
18: Health is the condition of an animal in terms of how the functions of life are being performed. Behavior is the reaction of an animal to certain stimuli. Disease is a disturbance in the functions or structure of an animal. Classification of Diseases Knowing how a disease will spread will help to better control and prevent it. Diseases are either contagious or noncontagious. A contagious disease is a disease spread by direct or indirect contact with other animals. A noncontagious disease is a disease that is not spread by casual contact.
19: Ways to maintain good health 1. Be sanitary 2. Environmental Conditions the environmental conditions of an animal must be checked regularly. 3. Proper Nutrition 4. Isolation this is when you separate animals from each other if one animal is sick. 5. Immunization this is when you keep your animals shots up to date just as you would a child.