S: By: Shundar Ahad AP Biology Mrs. Caro
FC: AP Biology Summer Project
1: Amylase- This is an enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch into simple sugars. The saliva glands are located under the tongue.
2: Porifera- Porifera are multicelled organisms that have many watter intake and outtake vessels. We call them sponges, the kids call him Spongebob.
3: Stem – woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.
4: . Angiosperm- Angiosperm is the sex organ of plants. This helps the plant reproduce and comes in a variety of systems. The most popular angiosperm are flowers and fruits, which attract all kinds of organisms to spread pollen and seeds. In this case I am showing you a flower, and the pollen inside it.
5: Stem – woody- This is when the structure of the plant stem is hard and more brownish. The primary example is obviously trees.
6: Chlorophyta- Chlorophyta is a division of green algae. These green algae can be found mainly in aquatic environments. The green things around my fish tank are green algae.
7: Eubacteria- Eubacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic cells. The are mass produced are undetectable most of the time to the human eye. These cells live everywhere but are primarily in dirt to break down inorganic and organic substances.
8: Cellulose- Cellulose is a rigid cell that makes the stems and cell walls of plants. As you can see the green plant stem is made up of cellulose tightly packed together to form a rigid upright structure.
9: Autotroph - Are organisms that have the ability to make nutrients out of inorganic substances. The primary example that most people know are green plants.
10: Adaptation of a plant- Adaptation means to comply with your surroundings as they change. In this instance, the adaptive characteristic of a plant is show as it’s stem climbs up the bigger plant in order to get some sunlight. | Rhizome- This is a thick underground horizontal stem that produces roots and shoots for new plants. It is located under the soil about 6 inches in.
11: Mycelium- A network of filaments that form the body of fungi. These fungi are the mushroom we see in the soil outside.
12: Chitin- Chitin is the outer, semitransparent layer that forms on many arthropods and fungi as a protective skin. Its hard to see in this picture, but if you look closely there are ants. Ants have these chitin layers that protect them from many forms of physical damage.
13: Amniotic sack- This is the sack in mammals and birds that contain eggs. Bird eggs are different in the way that they lay eggs and humans actually give birth.
14: Spore- This is a form of spreading the seeds of a plant in which the plant excretes small sticky and lightweight seeds that can fly with the wind and get stuck to organisms. An example of this is a dandelion.
15: Adaptation of an animal- This is when an animal’s adapt to his/her environment over time as obstacles pave the path of evolution. One example is Bees making their houses in on the walls of a house.
16: fruit – dry with seed- These fruits are called dry fruits because they are not full of liquid and moist as other fruits. An example of this is show above as a peanut is a dry fruit. | Actin- This is a protein that is present on all cells and muscle tissue. It is used by the muscle cells mainly for contraction.
17: Exoskeleton- An Exoskeleton is an outer covering that some animals have that protect them in a casing. Most people know exoskeletons as the ones spiders and crabs have. But most people do not recognize the exoskeletons that are show on humans in cartoons. This is an example of such an exoskeleton. | Commensalism- Commensalism is relationship between two organisms in which one benefits without affecting the other. That’s just like how birds live in trees. They don’t really give nutrients or anything to the tree, but benefit from it with its natural barriers.
18: Epithelial tissue- A tissue that covers the surface of the body and is composed of tightly packed cells. Skin is the prime example of epithelial tissue on human beings.
19: Fruit – fleshy with seed- These fruits are the more moist and juicy fruits that have fleshy insides like oranges and plums. The example posted above is a lime.
20: . Xylem- This is the woody and supportive plant tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the body of the plant.
21: Prokaryote- A type of cell which has no nucleus. The primary example of prokaryotic cells is bacteria. | R-strategist- This is a criteria of parenthood in which the organism does not take care of it’s young for long and produces many young and has a short life span. An example of this is bacteria.
22: Eukaryote- Eukaryote is a complex cell which has a nucleus. This type of cell is what makes up living things. An example of eukaryotic cells is most of our skin cells.
23: Thorn of a plant- This is a part of plant meant to serve as a defensive measure against animals that destroy it. An example of this is show above.
24: Flower ovary- The flower ovary is the female reproductive system of the flower. It is located on the bottom of the flower as a bulb.
25: Radial symmetry- This is the symmetry that most natural things have. This symmetry is when there are no two halves of something that are exactly the same. A primary example is a plant leaf. No plant leaf is ever exactly symmetrical.
26: Endosperm- Endosperm is like the fetus of a plant. It surrounds the embryo and gives it nutrients for it to grow. It is in the inside of the seed and is usually white.
27: Cuticle layer of a plant- This layer of the plant is the waxy outer coating that many plants have. This picture of a plant portrays how the cuticle layer creates dew drops on the top layer of the leaves.
28: Gibberellins- This is a hormone that induces growth and seed germination. It’s located mostly in the roots and newborn leaves of plants.
29: Animal that has a segmented body- A segmented body is a body which different sections, each section with a different function. Many animals have this characteristic. Humans like me have segmented bodies. Our bodies have different cavities which have different organs.