1: Pg 2....What if Pg 4....What if Pg 6...What if Pg 8...What if Pg 10...What if pg 12...Enlightenment/Revolution pg 14...What if Pg 16... Industrial Revolution Pg 18...WW 1 Pg 20...Medieval Europe Pg 22...Renaissance Pg 24...Reformation Pg 26...Classical Greece/Rome Pg 28...Post-ClassicalAsia Pg 30..WW2 Pg 32..Cold War Pg 34..What if Pg 36..What if Pg 38..Post-Classic Africa Pg 40.Indus River Valley | Table of Contents
2: If people had not learned how to farm work would get done much slower. Farming allowed people in civilizations to move on to extra tasks while crops grew. We would not have fresh vegetables or a variety of foods to choose from we would most likely be carnivores like the dinosaurs( Rawr)! If we had not learned to farm we would still be hunting and gathering today.
4: Athens was one of the first democracies and many cities in Greece followed their after. Athens is responsible for paving the way for democracy. If Athens had not chosen democracy our government would be unstable.
6: If the black plague did not attack Western Europe we wouldn't have advanced medicine because we wouldn't know what needed to be cured. More work would be done due to less deaths and less deaths equals more people and more people equals more technology. The world would also be overpopulated.
8: If the monguls had not opened the silk road trade would be a thing unknown. We wouldn't know about the asian culture or their knowledge. We wouldn't have ideas spread throughout the mongul civilization.
10: If the Austrian Heir to the throne was not assassinated then world war 1 might not have happened. Also he probably would not have provided the spark that ignited the great war. The Austrian heir was assassinated so that the other nation in the empire (croats, slovenes, montenegrins, macedons) could move closer towards political autonomy. A group of Serbian assassins called the Black Hand sent 5 men to kill him. So so sad.
12: Enlighten means - a revolution in thinking and reasoning. During the enlightenment period their were many philosophers who paved the way for how we think today. Major enlightenment thinkers were Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Jefferson, and Blackstone,all of which influenced the government , laws and out way of thinking. With France being the heart of this movement this leads us to the French revolution. A revolution means to successfully overthrow the norms. King Louis XIV was the king at the time but was a very poor leader. The guillotine was used for many executions( a sharp blade that comes down and cuts of a persons head). It was used alot by Maximiien Robespierre during the reign of terror. Angry third class citizens stormed the Bastille, marched to Versailles and formed the national assembly which limited the kings power.
14: If the printing press had not been made then everything would have to be hand written. You would get the words on to the paper more quicker. The printing press was a slower method but less expensive. Once the type is set many copies can be made. The printing press made books cheaper and educations easier. Also if the printing press was not invented it would be more expensive. But it is a good thing that the printing press was made.
16: If the industrial revolution had not begun in Germany or Russia there would be no modern technology. Also Germans would have never moved into Germany towards the new industry areas. Also it would not have spread to Belgium, France, Germany the united states and Japan. Also the industrial revolution would have never been particularly harsh on Russia. Russia would have not been characterized by a series of typologies.
18: world war 1 Some scholars consider the First World War merely the first phase of a 30-year-long war that spans the time frame of 1914 to 1945. World war 1 was caused by nationalism The belief that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior to others. Militarism (Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government.)was also a big caused of world war 1. Between Germany and Great Britain there was militarism. When Great Britain raised their military and made it better so did Germany. Well since wwI started in 1914, the US wanted to remain neutral so they didn't join the allied powers(the allied powers were great Britain Russia and France) in the beginning the wanted to benefits from the war.
19: Great Grandparents | Parents | Grandparents
20: In Mideval Europe lords,ladies, princes,princesses,chivalrous knights,kings and queens are who you would see strolling in carriages in the street. During this time the government was an absolute monarchy, this means the king has all the power. Many weapons were invented during this time for example cannons which were used to knock down castle walls. Commoners are people who had no power and worked during the day and they had to tolerate (put up with) the kings laws. Emperor Justinian 1 made up a series of principles (laws) that people had to abid by.
22: During the Renaissance inventors, artists, and great thinkers prevailed. Artists were very successful in their work with patrons, patrons are people who support artists in their work. With people supporting the arts. We were able to get perspective in our artwork and statues. Perspective is used to show volume and size on a flat surface. The most famous person during this time period would be the most famous person during this time period would be the renaissance man Leonardo da Vinci, he was an accomplished polymath, painters, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist,engineer,inventor,anatomist,geologist,cartographer,botanist,and writer. People were starting to go secular which mean believe in natural law rather than religion. The crusades are responsible for the beginning of the renaissance.because it showed the people there was a world beyond Europe.
24: "Reformation - a 16th century movement in western Europe that aimed at reforming some doctrines and practices of the roman catholic church and resulted in the establishment of the protestant churches."
26: Ancient Greece was divided into small city- states ( a city with its surrounding territory forms n independent state.) The form of government they had was a democracy, which means people ruled. Only men were allowed to vote. Greece is well known for its art such as its sculptures and vases which depicted scenes from the olympics, gods, or musical instruments, In Rome the romans did not want one man to make all of the laws so they balanced the powers of the government which is a system of checks and balances. You were not allowed to vote or elect leaders until you were an adult in Rome. Romans traveled to large arenas such as colosseums, circus maximus, or a theater. Romans had household and state religions while Greeks were polytheistic they believed in more than one god or goddess.
28: In Post-Classical Asia barbarians and Mongols were around. As of the 1200s the Islamic empire and Mongols were setting the stage of civilization. The climate in Mongolia was 90 degrees below zero. Genghis Khan was compared to Alexander the great and Hitler. The women in Mongol tribes were involved. The Mongols were always migrating (moving to one country or region or settle in another.) Significant people during this time were Genghis Khan who rose to power by revenge. Zheng He who was a Muslim leader and founded the ming dynasty, his people eventually rebelled against him, and Kublai Khan who founded the Yuan empire and was able to control it pretty well.
30: World War 2 began on September 3, 1939 when the prime minister of Britain declared war on Germany. World War 2 started by Germany in an unprovoked attack on Poland. Children and women were evacuated from the big cities into the countryside. People carried gas masks to protect themselves they also built air raid shelters, and all windows and doors were blacked out. Trench warfare was used in WW 2 at the end of WW 2 about 50 million people lost their lives.
32: The cold war was the continuing state from about 1947 to 1991 of political conflict, Military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the communist world. Primarily the soviet union and its satellite states and allies, the powers of the U.S and its allies. The Truman Doctrine was written during this time. Technological Competitions were held such as the space race. The U.S funded the Marshall PLan. The USSR placed multiple nuclear missiles in Cuba, sparking heated tension with the Americans & leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
34: If the of the U.S had not dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan the war may have continued longer. The soviets would be bolder with their communist promotions. Iran might be annexed into the USSR. The west would have more difficulty rebuilding.
36: If the Soviet Union had landed on the moon first and not the United States the soviet union would be ahead technology and science wise. The soviet union would have built a manufacturing and technology base. The soviet union would have a bigger sense of pride.
38: Early Africa has very low tech and was mainly agricultural(growing of crops and rearing of animals that are useful to man.) Due to a climate change the movement of people allowed for the development of Egypt and Nubia. During the time of the low tech cultures of southern Africa, Egypt and Nubia developed(Advanced or elaborated to a specified degree.) allot faster than its southern neighbors. Through the centuries there was the development of complex society(social formation that is otherwise described as a formative or developed state.) and cultural traditions. The early African people developed a writing system and organized religious traditions. There was also the development of early cities and improved irrigation(used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops). Trade(The action of buying and selling goods and services.) was important in early Africa and it was made possible by the abundant raw materials and improved boats that helped them go places where more traditional ships didn't dare go.
40: Approximately 5000 years ago the first complex, politically centralized civilizations began to crystallize independently along a number of river valleys throughout the southern half of Asia and northern Africa . These civilizations constitute the next step in the organization and centralization of human economic, political, religious, and social institutions and practices. The four ancient river valleys are India, China, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley Civilization, was an ancient civilization(the basis of the world as we know it today, built on the ruins of 10,000 years of advanced cultures such as the Greek, Roman, Mesopotamia, Mayan, Indus, Egyptian, and others that we know primarily through archaeology and some written records.) along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River( is an intermittent river in India, flowing during the monsoon rains). in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Ancient Egypt developed over at least three and a half millennia. It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around 3500 BC and is conventionally thought to have ended in 30 BC when the early Roman Empire( the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization) conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt as a province. China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty(or Yin Dynasty was according to traditional sources the second Chinese dynasty) have been carbon dated to around 1500 BC. Chinese civilization started with city-states in the Yellow River valley( called "the cradle of Chinese civilization").