S: Civil War Generals
FC: Famous Generals of the Civil War 1860-1865
1: This book is dedicated to those brave men, women, and young boys who gave the last full measure of devotion to their country. Although dedicated to the American Civil War, this book is meant to regard all those who have served, and died, in the service of the greater good of their country. May their devotion to the cause stand steadfast in our hearts, and may we always remember those who died, so that we may live.
3: The great Union military hero of the Civil War, Ulysses Grant also served two terms as U.S. president. Grant came from humble beginnings in small-town Ohio; his father was a tanner. The future general was baptized as Hiram Ulysses Grant, but when he arrived at West Point military academy in 1839, he found that he had been registered as Ulysses Simpson Grant, and he never bothered to change the name back. A sloppy cadet but a great horseman, Grant went on to serve with distinction in the Mexican War of 1846-48. Grant was later a failure as a farmer and a businessman, but he soared to fame during the Civil War, when he earned the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant" for his relentless tactics and leadership. He rose to become President Abraham Lincoln's choice as commander of the Union Armies from 1864 until the war's end in 1865. (The war ended after Grant accepted the surrender of Confederate leader Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia on 9 April 1865.) After the war, Grant was easily elected to two terms as president (1869-77), but his administration was tainted by corruption among his Cabinet members. He was succeeded by Rutherford B. Hayes. His Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, written after he left office, were published after his death in 1885 and are still regarded as a classic history of the Civil War. Grant married the former Julia Dent on 22 August 1848. They had four children: Frederick (b. 1850), Ulysses, Jr. (b. 1850, called Buck), Ellen (b. 1855, called Nellie), and Jesse (b. 1858)... President Grant died deep in debt after being defrauded by Ferdinand Ward, a business partner of his son Ulysses. But Grant's wife Julie was saved from bankruptcy when his memoirs were published and earned hundreds of thousands of dollars... Grant succeeded Andrew Johnson... Grant was the 18the president.
5: Robert E. Lee was the Confederacy's most famous general in the American Civil War. Lee was first a soldier in the U.S. Army: He attended West Point (graduating second in his class) and became an engineer in the United States Army, serving with success in the Mexican-American War of 1846-48. As the Civil War broke out in 1861, Lee resigned his commission and joined the forces of the South. In 1862 he was made commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, and over the next three years became famous as he led the army to a series of victories over the larger and better-equipped Union forces. He was defeated at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg and finally surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House on 9 April 1865, effectively ending the war. Lee was the son of Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, a cavalry commander during the Revolutionary War and a onetime governor of Virginia... After the Civil War, Robert E. Lee became president of Washington College in Virginia, a post which he held until his death. After his death the school was renamed as Washington and Lee... Lee's horse Traveller served him throughout the Civil War and is now regarded as one of history's famous steeds.
7: Union general in the American Civil War, born inHadley, Mass. After fighting the Seminole and serving in the Mexican War, Hooker resigned from the army in 1853 and was for several years a farmer in California. At the outbreak of the Civil War he became a brigadier general of volunteers. He distinguished himself in subordinate commands in the Peninsular campaign, at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam campaign, and was made a brigadier general in the regular army in Sept., 1862. After the battle of Fredericksburg, Hooker severely criticized Ambrose Burnside, whom he succeeded (Jan., 1863) in command of the Army of the Potomac. In Apr., 1863, he advanced against Robert E. Lee, but in the resulting battle of Chancellorsville, he failed to justify his nickname of “Fighting Joe.” Hooker followed Lee closely in the subsequent Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania, but, angered at General Halleck's refusal to send him reinforcements from Harpers Ferry, he asked on June 28, 1863, to be relieved. Hooker ably commanded reinforcements from the East in the Chattanooga campaign, and in 1864 he fought in the Atlanta campaign until General Sherman passed him over as successor to John B. McPherson.
9: A hard-driving, Cromwell-like Confederate general, and sole undisputed military genius of the American civil war. Convinced that God intended him for some great purpose, he became a terror to the Union and an inspiration to the Confederacy by his implementation of the axiom ‘move swiftly, strike vigorously and secure all the fruits of victory’. He graduated from West Point in 1846, but left the army to teach at the Virginia Military Institute in 1851. Appointed a Confederate brigadier general in 1861, he earned his nickname at first Bull Run where his brigade was described as standing like a stone wall. After the 1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign he was marked for greatness and became Lee's principal lieutenant. As Fuller put it, he ‘possessed the brutality essential in war’. More even than Sherman, he did not wish merely to defeat but to punish the enemy. There was none of Lee's courtliness in his make-up, and his own men were either useful to his purposes or not worthy of consideration. He was impatient with weariness or even illness, harshly unforgiving of desertion, and inclined to attribute any battlefield failure to cowardice. On several occasions he gave battle with subordinate commanders awaiting court martial. Apart from a weakness for fresh fruit, his only passion was to fulfil the predestination of his implacable God. His greatest success also encompassed the most glaring failure of his secretive style of generalship, when at Chancellorsville his mortal wounding aborted his plan to cut off the Union retreat. It is doubtful that it would have produced the annihilation he intended, but he appears to have been alone in appreciating that only thus could the war be won. Lee's last message to him said that for the good of the country he would have chosen to be struck down in his stead. His own last words resonate poignantly over the years: ‘Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees.’
11: William Tecumseh Sherman is the U.S. Civil War general who famously said, "war is hell" -- and proved it with a destructive campaign through the South that burned the cities of Atlanta, Georgia and Columbia, South Carolina. A graduate of the military academy at West Point (1840), Sherman served without distinction during the Mexican War and, as a young lieutenant, was sent by President James Polk to report on California's gold rush (1847). Sherman left the military in 1853 and tried unsuccessfully to build a career in banking in California and law in Kansas before becoming the superintendent of the Louisiana Military Seminary (the forerunner of Louisiana State University). After the South seceded, he returned to the army in 1861 as a colonel and went on to participate in some of the Civil War's biggest campaigns, including Bull Run, Shiloh, Vicksburg and Chattanooga. Sherman was named Tecumseh after the Shawnee chieftain; as a boy Sherman was raised by family friends, who had him baptized as William... Sherman was a prolific writer and published a two-volume memoir in 1875... Unwilling to be drafted to run for president, Sherman is known for saying, "If nominated, I will not run. If elected, I will not serve."
13: Born in Spain of American parents, Meade was commissioned into the artillery from West Point but left the army in 1836 and spent six years as a civil engineer before rejoining, this time as a topographical engineer. He served with distinction in the Mexican war and was promoted captain in 1856. Appointed brigadier general of volunteers in August 1861 he was wounded during the Seven Days battles but recovered to fight at second Bull Run and Antietam, where he took over Hooker's corps when its commander was wounded. Promoted major general of volunteers in November he was given command of V Corps in December and led it at Chancellorsville in May 1863. Unusually among senior Union officers he had no driving ambition and, no less important, was no political threat to Lincoln, who nominated him to succeed Hooker in command of the Army of the Potomac. He accepted reluctantly, and only days later was engaged in a difficult defensive battle at Gettysburg, from which he emerged victorious. Although he failed to press Lee's retreat, Meade was appointed brigadier general in the regular army and voted the thanks of Congress. Meade headed the Army of the Potomac throughout the war, although when Grant was appointed commander of all Union forces in March 1864 he stationed himself at Meade's headquarters, greatly reducing his independence. Yet the arrangement worked well: Meade proved a skillful collaborator through the grinding campaigns of 1864-5 and was promoted major general in the regular army in August 1864. He stayed on in the army after the war. Meade was not a brilliant general, and his filthy temper made him a difficult man to serve. However, his dogged determination and high principles gave him a strength which served the Union well.
15: George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. However, although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these attributes may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in 1862 ended in failure, with retreats from attacks by General Robert E. Lee's smaller army and an unfulfilled plan to seize the Confederate capital of Richmond. His performance at the bloody Battle of Antietam blunted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but allowed Lee to eke out a precarious tactical draw and avoid destruction, despite being outnumbered. As a result, McClellan's leadership skills during battles were questioned by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, who eventually removed him from command, first as general-in-chief, then from the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was famously quoted as saying, "If General McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it for a time." Despite this, he was the most popular of that army's commanders with its soldiers, who felt that he had their morale and well-being as paramount concerns.
16: MixBook Lesson Plan (Copy and Paste from the lesson plan below into the back section of your MixBook) SECTION ONE Author: Richard Dennis Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Semester Created: Spring 2009 LESSON OVERVIEW Title: The Struggle of Leadership and War Brief Description: Students will read the Civil War Mixbook, and then research a chosen leader more in depth, whereupon they will then make a power point, and play a question and answer segment pretending to be the chosen leader. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS/GENERALIZATIONS: What is the one big idea that you want the students to leave your class with? The student understands that…. I want students to understand that the leaders of the Civil War were human, and very much dealt with the same struggles and hardships that we do today. I want students to understand that those people who formed our past were not so different from you and I today.
17: ENGAGING QUESTION/SCENARIO: How will you engage students and set up the lesson? I will begin by asking them to name some of these leaders which we will be studying, and provide some detail about them. I will then proceed to set up the mental scenario of dealing with death, loss, morality, commitment, duty, sacrifice, and will that these leaders must have gone through. I would then ask them to discuss how they think that it must have felt to have been a leader with such a heavy burden. At this time, I will then proceed to have the students research their chosen leader, and proceed to try to understand who they were and how they coped with the atrocities of the Civil War. SUBJECT AREA(S) (Put an X by all relevant subject areas.) ___ Math ___ Science _x__ Reading _x__ Writing _x__ Social Studies/History ___ Foreign Language ___ Art ___ Music ___ PE _x__ Information and Technology Literacy
18: GRADE LEVEL (Put an X by all relevant grade levels.) ___ Kindergarten ___ Grade 1 ___ Grade 2 ___ Grade 3 ___ Grade 4 ___ Grade 5 ___ Grade 6 ___ K-12 Elementary ___ K-12 Middle _x__ K-12 Secondary ___ Secondary DETAILED LESSON DESCRIPTION Standards, Benchmarks, Student Learning Targets (use all that apply as related to the “Big Idea” you are addressing)
19: GLE #1: Statement and Context of the GLE with Show-Me Performance Standards The SWBAT Analyze the evolution of American democracy, its ideas, institutions and Political processes from colonial days to the present, including: Civil War and Reconstruction (GLE Social Studies, United States History, 2a. Knowledge of continuity and change in the history of Missouri, the United States and the world, Concept B - Grades 9-12) (Performance Goals 4.1, 4.2, 4.3) STUDENT ASSESSMENT List the assessment tools needed to address the standards and benchmarks listed above. These can include constructed responses, self-assessments, checklists, selected response, observations, essay, etc. The students will be assessed on whether or not they feel they have a good understanding of whether or not they comprehend some of the challenges presented to the leaders of the Civil War. They will also be assessed on the quality of their questions and overall detail on the power point.
20: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA (based on selected content standards and benchmarks; create and link to rubric scoring guide/s.) The power point requirements are as follows: •Students must be able to pick a Civil War Leader and outline via power point his life •Students must list within power point the major achievements of the chosen leader during the Civil •Students must summarize their life after the Civil War and their contributions to the mending of the nation COLLABORATION (Describe any collaboration components of the unit. How are other teachers, LMC Specialist, Instructional Technology Specialists involved in your lesson?) LESSON IMPLEMENTATION Length of Unit (hours, days): The length of this unit will be four days for the entire hour of Social Studies for each of those days.
21: To see the scoring guide for this lesson, please see the rubric at the following link: http://redwolfd.pbwiki.com/MixBookRubric