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S: The Mayan Culture

BC: My sources: http://www.authenticmaya.com/maya_culture.htm http://gomexico.about.com/od/historyculture/p/maya.htm http://www.cancunsteve.com/mayan.htm

FC: THE MAYAN CULTURE | By: Justin Hernan

1: These photos were taken on 4/23/11 @ 2:33 PM Location: The Ancient Mayan Ruins of Tulum | Around 4000 BC, the ancient mayans had spread out over the highland areas of Central America and had soon reached a population size large enough to form small settlements and domesticate plants.

2: The essentials of the Maya calendric system are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 5th century BCE. | Taken on 4/25 @ 4:09 PM Location: Playa del Carmen, Mexico

3: This picture was taken on 4/ 22 @ approxi. 2:55 PM Location: Tulum, Mexico | The Maya people constitute a diverse range of the Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America.

4: This picture was found from Google on 5/1 @ 11:00 AM Location: Central America (Google) The Mayan languages are descendants of a proto-language called Proto-Mayann. This language is beleived to have been spoken in the Cuchumatanes highlands of Central Guatemla in an aera corresponding roughly to where Q'anjobalan is spoken today.

5: The Maya Architecture, as well as their Art, has been called the richest of the New World because of the great complexity of patterns and variety of media expressions. Limestone structures, faced with lime stucco, were the hallmark of ancient Maya architecture. Maya buildings were adorned with carved friezes and roof combs in stone and stucco. With large quantities of limestone and flint available, plaster and cement were easily produced. This allowed the Mayans to build impressive temples, with stepped pyramids | This picture was taken on 4/26 @ 12:21 PM Location: Nacional Museo de Antropología in Cozumel, Mexico

6: Mayan art was probably produced only by the wealthy, as most people who lived in the culture were farmers who had to work hard to make a daily living. In fact, it is presumed that most of the art was done by sons of kings or other royalty, and that the artworks produced were given as gifts or sold to other wealthy landowners. | This picture was taken on 4/26 @ 12:21 PM Location: Nacional Museo de Antropología in Cozumel, Mexico | This relief art either adorned buildings, or stood alone as stelae. Mayan sculpture often depicted rulers, gave dates and other information about them, and recorded important events.

7: The Mayas employed warfare in each period of their development for the purposes of obtaining sacrificial victims, settling competitive rivalries, acquiring critical resources and gaining control of trade routes. Warfare was important to the Maya religion, because raids on surrounding areas provided the victims required for human sacrifice, as well as slaves for the construction of temples. | This picture was found on Google on 5/7 @ 3:13 PM Location: Taken in or around the Yucatan Peninsula

8: This picture was taken at on 4/22 @ 4:51 PM Location: Chichen Itza, Mexico | Hieroglyphics was an advanced system of writing invented by the Maya people of Mesoamerica until about the end of the 17th century. It was the only true writing system developed in the pre-Columbian Americas. Mayan inscriptions are found on stelae, stone lintels, sculpture, and pottery, as well as on the few surviving Mayan books, or codices. The Mayan system of writing contains more than 800 characters, including some that are hieroglyphic and other phonetic signs representing syllables. The hieroglyphic signs are pictorial—i.e., they are recognizable pictures of real objects—representing animals, people, and objects of daily life.

9: The Mayans devised a counting system that was able to represent very large numbers by using only 3 symbols, a dot, a bar, and a symbol for zero, or completion, usually a shell. | Like our numbering system, they used place values to expand this system to allow the expression of very large values. Their system has two significant differences from the system we use: 1) the place values are arranged vertically, and 2) they use a base 20, or vigesimal, system. | This picture was found on Google on 5/2 @ 12:00 PM Location: Found on Google

10: Sometime after 900 AD, the Mayan Culture began to decline dramatically after many cities were abandoned. The remaining Maya were conquered by the Spanish and converted (at least nominally) to Roman Catholicism. The present-day Mayan peoples practice a religion that combines Roman Catholicism with Mayan cosmology, deities, and domestic rituals. | The ancient Mayans had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices. Rulers were believed to be descendants of the gods and their blood was the ideal sacrifice, either through personal bloodletting or the sacrifice of captives of royal blood | Taken on 4/29 @ 1:00 PM Location: Mayan Palace, Mexico

11: Mayans thought of Afterlife as a reward based system. They believed they would receive either a reward or punishment depending on their actions while on Earth. Those who died extra special deaths, such as warriors who died in combat, women who died in childbirth, dead priests, and even those who committed suicide were thought to go to a special paradise. The wicked however, would be eternally tormented in hell. The dead, no matter the final destination, were thought to enter the afterlife through a cave, a popular religious symbol. | Found on Google on 4/31 @ 6:38 PM Location: Picture is of in Mayan Palace, Mexico (Image from Google)

12: Sacrifice was a religious activity in Maya culture, involving either the killing of animals or the bloodletting by members of the community, in rituals superintended by priests. Sacrifice has been a feature of almost all pre-modern societies at some stage of their development and for broadly the same reason: to propitiate or fulfill a perceived obligation towards the gods. | Taken on 4/23 @ approx. 2:15 PM Location: Nacional Museo de Antropología in Cozumel, Mexico | Picture of a Mayan Sacrifice Painting

13: Maya religion was far more complicated than the simple worship of gods of nature. The Maya world was composed of 3 layers - the Heavens, the Earth, and the Underworld, sometimes called the Otherworld or the Place of Awe. The Mayas conducted many ceremonies to keep the demons, creatures and gods in the Underworld, where they belonged, away from torturing human souls. | Taken on 4/25 @ 11:47 AM Location: Nacional Museo de Antropologia in Cozumel, Mexico | Picture of a Mayan Underworld Painting

14: Trade in Maya civilization was a crucial factor in maintaining Maya cities. The economy was fairly loose, and based mostly on food like squash, potatoes, corn, beans, and sometimes chocolate drinks made of ground cocoa beans and water. They also traded almost any other basic necessities such as salt and stone because there was a large need for trade in order to bring such basic goods together. The types of trade varied greatly, from long-distance trading spanning the length of the region, to small trading between farm families. | Taken on 4/29 @ 1:03 PM Location: Cozumel, Mexico | Bartering Markets in Cozumel

15: Jade use in Mesoamerica was largely influenced by the conceptualization of the material as a rare and valued commodity among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Olmec, the Maya, and the various groups in the Valley of Mexico. Jade was largely an elite good that was highly symbolic and used in the performance of ideological rituals. It was often carved into weapons and other objects. | Pictures found on Google on 5/3 @ 3:22 PM Location: Jade and Silver were discovered near Xibalba (taken from Google) | Art and was a very important trade merchandise. It was composed of delineation upon paintings of plaster and wood. he Maya Kings commissioned finely crafted works to furnish their palaces and attest to their sovereignty and Warfare victories,

16: Taken from Google on 5/4/11 @ 5:53 PM Location: Google | The ordinary garment of men was a cotton breechcloth wrapped around the middle, with sometimes a sleeveless shirt. | Mayan women usually wear traje, which is a combination of a woven, multicolored blouse called a huipil, a woven wraparound skirt that reaches to the ankles, and is held together by faja (sash) at the waist. | Due to the temperature of the Mayan territory, they hadn't need an existense for clothes as defense to elements.

18: Taken on 4/29 @ 1:09 PM Location: Cozumel Shopping Outlets These are Mayan Breadnuts which orginated from the Breadnut tree. These nuts gave the Maya greater strengths and wisdom in order to be successful. They were also gave as an offering to please their gods.

19: Corn was perhaps the most important food and source of nutrients. First, they dried the kernels and removed them from the cob. After this process, the Maya soaked these kernels in a solution of water and lime, thereby removing the casings from each kernel. In doing so, the Maya exposed the amino acids found in corn, and also a number of other nutrients. | Taken on 4/23 @ 11:00 AM Location: Maize Field in Chichen Itza, Mexico

21: These pictures were taken on 4/28 @ 3:22 PM Location: Tulum, Mexico | These are the preserved remains of the ancient ruins which still lie today in Tulum. Many of these buildings were once the homes and shelters of many families. Today they are shown on display for tourists all around the world to come and explore. These ancient ruins can really show us how the ancient mayas lived.

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