S: Civilizations on the Rivers
FC: Civilizations on the Rivers Abby Woodward
1: Table of contents MEsopotamia......................pages 2&3 Egypt.................................pages 4&5 Indus Valley.......................pages 6&7 China..................................pages 8&9
2: mesopotamia | Mesopotamia means land between two rivers in this case the two rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. | The Fertile Cresent is an arc of rich farmland in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. When Mesopotamia was a civilization the Persian Gulf was much larger than it is today. | Kings, landholders, and some priests made up the highest social class. The lowest social class was made up of slaves. | Mesopotamians created a plow so they could farm easier.
3: Hammurabi was the king of Babylon who created the Hammurabi code. Mesopotamians invented the wheel and sail to make transportation easier. | Cuneiform was the written language mesopotamians created. Mesopotamians were polytheistic meaning that they believed in many gods.
4: Mummification is the process of preserving the body for the afterlife. Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics. | Like Mesopotamians, Egyptians were also polytheistic, in all they worshiped over 2000 gods and goddesses. The most important were Re, the sun god, and Osiris, the god of death. | egypt
5: The Nile river flows through Egypt creating fertile farmland. In ancient Egypt Pharaohs ruled as kings but were seen by the people as gods. Egyptians developed a calender to keep track of flooding seasons. | Egyptian women held many of the same rights as a man in their culture. Egyptians were not locked into their social class. | Egyptians built giant pyramids which were used as tombs for dead pharaohs.
6: Indus Valley | The Indus Valley Civilization is sometimes called the Harrapan Civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization was located between the Indus and Ganges Rivers. | The Hindu religion originated in the Indus Valley.
7: Archaeologists have found children's toys making them believe that the Indus people could not only afford necessities but also nonessential goods. | The Harrapans traded goods with people in Afghanistan, Persia, and other countries in the area. | The Indus people were some of the first to have plumbing and sewage systems. | The Harrapan Civilization was divided into three major cities, Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa and was planned on a grid system. | The Indus people used symbols to write. With over 400 symbols the Harrapn language has been impossible to decipher. | Like Egypt and Mesopotamia the Indus government and their religion were closely linked.
8: china | When the Huang He River floods it leaves behind a yellow dust giving it the name, the Yellow River. | In China, the people created a flood control and irrigation system. The ruler of the Chinese civilization granted people the divine approval, this was called the mandate of heaven. | The Chinese civilization was built between the Yellow or Huang He and the Yangtze Rivers.
9: The culture was seen as the center of the Chinese civilized world. | The family ancestors had the power to bring a Chinese family good fortune or disaster. | To the south of China are the Himalayas and to the north is the Gobi Desert. | Chinese people worshiped a supreme god, Shang Di, as well as smaller gods. | Chinese people use characters for their written language. | The Chinese social classes were sharply divided between nobles and peasants.