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Egypt 2010

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Egypt 2010 - Page Text Content

S: EGYPT 2010

FC: EGYPT | 2010

1: Our Flight Itinerary | Thurs Sept 23 528 Miles Minneapolis, MN 11:30 AM Detroit, MI 2:23 PM 509 Miles Detroit, MI 5:15 PM New York/JFK 7:19 PM 5,614 Miles New York/JFK 9:55 PM Cairo, Egypt 4:15 PM | Mon Sept 27 549 Miles Cairo, Egypt 11:35 AM Aswan, Egypt 1:00 PM | Sat Oct 2 447 Miles Luxor, Egypt 9:25 AM Cairo, Egypt 10:35 AM Mon Oct 4 2,043 Miles Cairo, Egypt 3:15 AM Amsterdam, NL 7:55 AM 4,166 Miles Amsterdam, NL 10:20 AM Minneapolis, MN 12:30 PM Total Miles.........................13,856! | Jody & Cathy Bengtson

2: Day 1 Flight to Cairo Day 2 Arrival in Egypt Day 3 The Pyramids and The Sphinx Day 4 Free day in Giza Day 5 Aswan Day 6 Embark on cruise Day 7 Aswan Dam Day 8 Kom Ombo and Edfu Day 9 West Bank Day 10 Disembark from cruise Day 11 Sightseeing in Cairo Day 12 Return home

3: Egypt, one of the oldest continuous civilizations, still draws tourists and businessmen by the plane-load. Ancient monuments, the Red Sea Coast, Nile Cruises and Africa's largest city, Cairo, are among its main attractions. It is hot and sunny for most of the year in Egypt. Winters (November to February) are generally mild. | The Nile River runs north through Egypt into the Mediterranean Sea and is the world's longest river at 4,135 miles. Most Egyptians lived near the Nile as it provided food, water and transportation and excellent soil for growing food.

4: Egypt is located in North Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It covers over 62,140 miles and has a population around 81 million. The capital is Cairo and 94% of the people are Muslin, while Coptic Christian and others make up the other 6% of the religion. Arabic is the official language, while English and French are also understood. The currency is the Egyptian Pound.

5: Cairo International Airport is one of the fastest growing airports in the Middle East. It is the busiest airport in Egypt and second busiest in Africa. Over 65 different airlines use Cairo Airport, with EgyptAir being the largest operator at the airport.

7: Swiss Inn Pyramids Golf Resort 6th of October City Cairo, Egypt

8: A hookah, also known as a water- pipe, is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for smoking in which the smoke is cooled and filtered by passing through water. The tobacco comes in many flavors such as apple, strawberry, melon, cappuccino, or mint and is often dried with fruit extracts. Smoking can last 2 hours or more and is simply a peaceful, social occasion that is filled with good conversation with friends.

10: The limestone Colossus of Ramesses the 2nd stretches more than 40 feet long even with its missing legs. Larger than life as a ruler, builder, and sire, Ramesses spread his likeness across Egypt during his epic reign. Ramesses the Great ruled for more than 60 years (1279 to 1213 B.C.), fathered over 90 children, and is credited with bringing his empire prosperity and peace. | MEMPHIS

12: The Step Pyramid is considered one of the oldest stone structures ever built by men. It was designed by the architect Imhotep for his master Djoser, the founder of the third dynasty. Intended to hold his mummified body, Pharaoh Djoser's Step Pyramid began as a traditional flat-roofed mastaba. It is designed with 6 layers; with each layer smaller than the one below. It is constructed entirely of limestone and has remained for more than 4,700 years. The innovative design would later evolve into the smooth-sided triangular pyramids of Giza and other pyramids of Egypt. | SAQQARA

14: CAMELS | Camels

16: At El-Sultan Carpet School watch how children, mostly girls, learn how to make handmade carpets. Skilled weavers create phenomenal carpets that can run from expensive to very expensive. The choices of carpets for sale are made from many fibers including wool and silk. Constructed reversible carpets are so detailed that it is hard to distinguish the front from the back.

17: Carpets For Sale

19: LUNCH TIME

20: THE LARGEST PYRAMID, BUILT FOR KING KHUFU IS OFTEN CALLED THE GREAT PYRAMID. IT WAS BUILT DURING KHUFU'S REIGN (2551 BC - 2528 BC), AND PROBABLY TOOK 20 - 30 YEARS TO BUILD. THE INTERIOR OF THE GREAT PYRAMID IS COMPLEX WITH A SERIES OF PASSAGES LEADING TO SEVERAL ROOMS. THE ENTRANCE TO THE GREAT PYRAMID WAS SET 55 FEET ABOVE THE GROUND LEVEL.

21: GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA

22: SEVENTH WONDER OF THE ANCIENT WORLD | SEVENTH WONDER OF THE ANCIENT WORLD | SEVENTH WONDER OF THE ANCIENT WORLD | SEVENTH WONDER OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

23: The largest Pyramid in Egypt is the one built for King Khufu, in Giza. Khufu's Pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid, is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that still exists. It is 756' on each side, 480' high and is composed of 2.3 million blocks of stone. Each stone averages 2.5 tons in weight. It was built by 10's of thousands of skilled workers. For a period of 4,300 years, the Pyramid was also the tallest building on earth, until the French built the Eiffel Tower in 1889. However, it remains the most massive building on the Earth today and is said to be visible from the moon. Egyptian pyramids were originally built to serve as tombs for kings and queens. After a ruler died his or her body was carefully treated and wrapped to preserve it as a mummy. According to ancient Egyptian belief the pyramid where the mummy was placed, provided a place for the king to pass into the afterlife. In temples nearby priests performed rituals to nourish the dead monarch's spirit, which was believed to stay with the body after death. In the old kingdom, Egyptian artists carved hieroglyphs on the walls of the burial chamber, designed to safeguard the dead monarch's passage into the afterlife. These hieroglyphic writings, which included hymns, magical spells, instructions on how to act in front of the gods and other pieces of useful knowledge, are known as the Pyramid Texts.

24: The Great Sphinx of Egypt was believed to stand as a guardian of the Giza Plateau, where it faces the sun. It is also believed that the Great Sphinx was built by Pharaoh Khafre, builder of the second Giza pyramid. The face of the largest free standing sculpture is 260 feet long, 20 feet wide, 65 feet tall and was built over 4,600 years ago.

25: The Great Sphinx of Giza has been a symbol of Egypt from ancient times to the present. It is one of the most recognized monuments ever. It has inspired the imagination of artists, poets, adventurers, scholars and travelers for centuries. It also has inspired endless speculation about its age, its meaning and the secrets that it might hold. Due to sun, wind and smog the Great Sphinx continues to erode. Restoration efforts are constantly underway to try to protect this natural treasure.

27: TRANSPORTATION

29: GIZA CAMEL RIDES

30: Beautiful Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea

31: Other | Memories

32: Evacuations of Kom el-Shoqafa were started in 1892, but no catacombs were found until September 1900. A story is told to tourists that the catacombs were found when a donkey fell through a hole in the ground, but the real actual discovery happened by an Alexandrian who was quarrying for stone. Kom el-Shoqafa dates back to the 2nd century AD and were built to house over 300 dead notables, possibly beginning as a family crypt. They lie over 114 feet underground and are accessed by a spiral stairway. The center of this stairway is the shaft through which the deceased were lowered. Many of the rooms display an unique fusion of Egyptian, Greek and Roman decorative artwork. It is the largest burial site in Egypt and was opened to the public in 1995, after pumping the subsoil water from the 2nd level.

33: Catacombs of Kom el-Shoqafa | 7 Wonders of the Middle Ages | Banquet Hall

34: The first Alexandrian Library was built in 330 BC and reputedly contained 700,000 scrolls. The library or parts of the collection have been destroyed by fire on a number of occasions. The New Alexandrian Library opened in October 2002 and costs millions of dollars to build. The goal of the library is to once again hold the most important collection of books and manuscripts of the world and to work on recreating what was lost. The designers created enough space to hold more than 8 million volumes, as well a special conference center and distinct individual libraries for the blind and for children's literature. It was built on its original location of the ancient Library of Alexandria and is a striking example of modern architecture and engineering genius. It is constructed from Aswan granite and houses several art galleries, a planetarium and a laboratory as well as its mammoth reading room and collection rooms.

36: The world is a book and those that don't travel only read one page

38: ASWAN DAM | Located near Aswan, the world famous High Dam was an engineering miracle when it was built in the 1960's. It took 10 years to build and was completed in 1970. It contains 18 times the material used in the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The dam is 11,811 feet long, 3,215 feet thick at the base and 364 feet tall. There are actually 2 dams on the Nile River at Aswan, the Aswan High Dam and the Aswan Low Dam, both of which work together to keep the Nile from flooding, to harvest water for agricultural purposes and to generate electricity. The most important change that the Dam brought about was that it made the annual flooding of the Nile valley in Egypt a thing of the past. Lake Nasser, which is some 500 miles long and at the time it was built, if not now, was the world's largest artificial lake. The floodwaters are now trapped in Lake Nasser behind the dam and their flow into the valley can be controlled. This has enabled more land in the valley to be irrigated, partly to feed Egypt's growing population.

41: What a view!

42: Lotus Flower | Restaurant

44: Aswan to Abu Simbel

46: Cathy & Jody | Jody | Trip of a Lifetime

47: TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL

48: ABU SIMBEL | MONUMENTS | ABU SIMBEL | MAGNIFICIENT

49: Two magnificent temples, originally carved in a mountain, were built by Ramesses the 2nd more than 3,000 years ago. The 100 foot high Great Temple of Abu Simbel is world famous and features 4 statues of Ramesses and his wife Queen Nefertari, each being 65 feet high. Next to the Great Temple is the temple dedicated to Queen Nefertari. The temples were in danger of being flooded with the building of the Aswan Dam. The Egyptian Government secured the support of the UNESCO and launched a world wide appeal and raised over 40 million dollars to move the temples. Between January 1966 and September 1968, the restoration work crews carved the temples into over a thousand pieces, with some weighing as much as 30 tons a piece, and the temples were moved 200 feet above the original site to an artificial cliff above Lake Nasser.

50: Nile Cruise

51: Kon Tiki

52: Obelisks were sometimes put in front of or into temples, where they acted as "antennas" drawing cosmic energy down to earth. One was never finished because of a fatal crack, is located at the ancient quarry at Aswan and is called "The Unfinished Obelisk." | Unfinished Obelisk | If finished the Unfinished Obelisk would have been a mind-boggling 137 feet high, which is higher than any Egyptian obelisk, and weighs over 1,168 tons.

53: Perfume was an important part of death and burial rites. Bodies were perfumed during mummification as it was believed the soul would visit the gods and so perfume would repel the demons.

56: Philae Island | The Ancient Egyptians built a very beautiful and magnificent Temple on the Philae Island for the Goddess Isis, but the temple became submerged after the first Aswan Dam was built in 1906. It was not until the seventies that the nations attempted to save the Temple. Together with the UNESCO a suitable place was selected, but they had to wait until the completion of the High Dam in 1971, which would stabilize the water around the island. The new island, Egilica, was completely reshaped to look like Philae Island. Isis is very important in the ancient world. She is the Goddess of Magic, Wind and Fire. She is the Great One who heals. She is the Goddess of Love and War. She is the Divine Mother. Her name is sacred and she was worshiped throughout Egypt, even from very early dates.

57: Isis

58: Nubian Vendors

59: Felucca Ride | Water Taxis | Camel Rides | Feluccas are simple wooden sailboats, based on traditional design and have been used on the Nile since ancient times. They are a wind powered craft with 1 or 2 lateen sails, no motor and are dependent on the wind to travel. Feluccas have the ability to carry about 10 passengers and a crew of 2 - 3 people.

60: The Temple of Edfu is located between Aswan and Luxor, built over a 180 year period from 237 BC and 57 BC, is the best preserved temple in Egypt and is dedicated to the falcon god Horus. Horus is considered the sky-god, was envisioned as a falcon, was the divine protector and patron of the pharaoh and is the son of Isis and Osiris. After the murder of Osiris by his brother Seth, the god of chaos, Horus and Seth fought for the throne of Egypt and Horus lost one eye. It is believed the Temple of Edfu was built on the site of the battle between Horus and Seth.

62: PAPYRUS | English word "paper", is derived from the word "papyrus." This plant grew along the banks of the Nile and provided the Egyptians with the necessary raw materials. This plant was quite versatile and was not only used in the production of paper, but it was also used in the manufacture of boats, rope and baskets. However, the singularly most important and valuable product was the papyrus paper. Not only was this ancient Egypt's greatest export, but it revolutionized the way people kept valuable information. | Papyrus is made from the stem of the plant. The outer rind is first stripped off and the sticky fibrous pith is cut lengthwise into thin strips of about 16 inches long. The strips are then placed side by side on a hard surface with their edges slightly overlapping, and then another layer of strips is laid on top at a right angle. While still moist, the two layers are hammered together, mashing the layers into a single sheet. The sheet is then dried under pressure.

65: Temple of Karnak

66: Karnak | The Karnak Temple complex is huge, covering a site almost a mile by 2 miles. It was begun in the 12th dynasty (1991 - 1785 BC) and was continued over centuries. Hypostyle Hall is considered one of the world's greatest architectural achievements. It is filled with 134 enormous pillars, the highest 70' tall, and each 45' around. The hall covers an area of 64,586 sq feet. An avenue of ram-headed sphinxes leads visitors toward the main entrance. | The big key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Approximately 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere. Although few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, the sheer size and number of features makes it one of the most impressive temples complexes in Egypt.

68: The Luxor Temple in the city of Luxor, Egypt was once a sacred temple built in the honor of the deity Amun. Constructed in the 14th century BC by Amenhotep the third, the 9th pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, the temple was part of the Ancient Egyptian city of Thebes. The ancient Egyptians used to celebrate grand festivals in order to break the monotony of life and to indulge in some interesting activities. Whether the festival was religious or political, rich and poor took pleasure in the events. One such even was the celebration of Opet, that was celebrated the second month of the lunar calendar and their ritual journeys made from the shrines at Karnak to the temple of Luxor. Luxor Temple is incredibly well -preserved and with its statues of Ramesses the 2nd, it is clear that several great pharaohs and other leaders added to it at later stages including King Tut and later Alexander the Great. The ancient Egyptians believed that sphinxes were "Guardians of the temple gates and the underworld." From Luxor's Avenue of the Sphinxes to its looming archways and giant statues, the enormous Luxor Temple is a breathtaking site.

70: We wander for distraction, but we travel for fulfillment

71: Memories of Egypt

73: Horus Airship and Balloon

75: Life is not measured by the breaths we take, but the moments that take our breath away

77: The Colossi of Memnon, built 3,400 years ago, once stood at the entrance gate of the mortuary of Amenhotep the 3rd, though very little of the temple behind them remains today. The two huge ruined statues, weighing 1 thousand tons and standing 75' high, were cut from two massive granite blocks that were brought from quarries near Cairo. The statues were carved to represent the pharaoh Amenhotep the 3rd. Though damaged by nature and ancient tourists, the statues are still impressive today.

78: Al-Deir Al-Bahari Temple

79: Hatshepsut - The Woman Who Was King | Queen Hatshepsut was the only woman to rule Ancient Egypt while the kingdom was at the height of its wealth and power, from about 1502 to 1482 BC. Of all the female pharaohs- including Cleopatra and Nefertiti, Hatshepsut's reign was the longest and most successful. As pharaoh, she had to wear the traditional male regalia of Egyptian kings, the khat head cloth, topped with an ureanus, the traditional false beard, and shendyt kilt, and she is depicted such in many statues. This doesn't mean that she denied her gender; rather it is more a show of authority to rulers, respect to tradition and a way to gain acceptance among the Egyptian elders and people. Hatshepsut was a prolific builder. Like most pharaohs she had monuments constructed at the Temple of Karnak. While in power, she established trade routes and built hundreds of monuments and temples throughout Egypt. Despite her prosperous reign, both her mummy and her legacy were virtually erased from Egyptian history. Many historians believe that Tuthmosis the 3rd, Hatshepsut's stepson, destroyed records and monuments bearing her name. It may have been done in revenge. It is believed she stole the throne from him. Her mortuary temple is located in ancient Thebes. It is a multi-level sandstone temple built into the cliff face that rises sharply above the site on the West Bank of the Nile in today's Luxor. Surrounding it are the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens, the burial places of Egypt's pharaohs and their wives. Al-Deir Al-Bahari Temple is considered to be among the great buildings of the ancient world.

80: Valley of the Kings

81: The Valley of the Kings contains 62 tombs to date, which were carved into solid limestone and flint rock and were excavated by Egyptologists along with archeologists from many countries. Not all of the tombs belonged to the kings and royal families. Some tombs belonged to privileged nobles and were usually undecorated. Not all of the tombs were discovered intact, and some were never completed. Today, only a few of the 62 known tombs are accessible and the ones that are open are only open on a rotating annual basis to avoid extensive damage from the frequent tourist viewing and restoration work to be done. Eleven of the tombs, including Tutankhamun's, Ramesses the 6th, Amenhotep the 2nd and Seti the first, have been set with electrical lighting. | Egypt's Valley of the Kings is a desolate place. Located near the Nile across from the ancient city of Thebes (the modern Luxor), the arid valley supports no vegetation and provides no shelter from the relentless sun. The ground is a mixture of sand and small rocks that broil in the sun's heat. Temperatures average 90 degrees in the winter and in the summer they soar to 120's. Valley of the Kings is the place the Egyptian pharaohs over 3,000 years ago chose to be interred in tombs buried beneath the lifeless landscape. Surrounded in death by treasures of unimaginable value, the pharaohs hoped to elude discovery by grave robbers that had violated the burial vaults of their predecessors. Their efforts were unsuccessful; thieves pillaged all of the buried tombs in the valley - except one, that of the famous Tutankhamun, who died around 1346 BC.

82: The Greatest Discovery

83: Tutankhamun, known as the Boy King, reigned from 1333 - 1323 BC. Known as King Tut by the western people, is by far the most famous Egyptian Pharaoh today. He was born around 1342 BC. Tutankhamun was 9 or 10 years old when he became pharaoh and reigned for approximately 10 years. Since his death in his late teens the Boy King remained unknown at rest in Egypt's Valley of the Kings for more than 3,300 years because the tomb was concealed beneath the mud brick houses of the workmen who cut through to the tomb of Ramesses the 6th. Suddenly everything was changed in November 1922, when Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun. The tomb, identified as KV62, most likely was not carved for a king, but rather for a high official. Due to the fact that King Tut died so young, the tomb was subjected to rush modifications. Carter's discovery of King Tut's tomb was sensational at the time, because it was the first time a royal tomb had been found which still contained an intact burial. The Pharaoh's mummified body was inside 3 nested coffinettes. The outer 1st and 2nd sarcophaguses were made of wood, layered with beaten gold. The weight of it was so heavy it took 8 men to lift it. King Tut's body was carefully wrapped in white cloths, and on his head was a 24 pound solid gold Death Mask that was ornamented with glass and semi-precious stones. Over 5,000 objects were found in the tomb, covering every aspect of ancient Egyptian life. King Tut's treasures can be seen in the Cairo Egyptian Museum in a newly renovated exhibition hall and are well worth a visit. | KING TUTANKHAMUN - "THE BOY KING" | KV62 | KV62

84: Mummification | 1. 15 DAYS SPENT ON CLEANSING AND PURIFICATION -The first part of the body to be removed was the brain, because the Egyptians did not know the purpose of the brain, so they thought it was a waste of space. The brain was extracted using a hook through the nose and dissolved in water. The embalmers pulled out the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines and placed them in canopic jars. Once the organs were removed the inside of the body was washed out with palm oil, lotions and preserving fluids. Next the body was stuffed with linen, straw, or other packing material to keep the general shape of the person. 2. 40 DAYS DRYING PERIOD - The body was placed on a slab and covered with natron salt. The slab was tilted so that the water would run off into a basin. This removed moisture and also prevented rotting. The body was dried for 40 days, followed by wrapping of the body. 3. 15 DAYS TO WRAPPING, BANDAGING AND PAINTING - Finally, it was coated with resin and bandaged, with priests placing amulets between the layers. The whole process accompanied by elaborate spells and prayers took about 70 days, but preserved bodies for thousands of years. The Opening of the Mouth was performed by priests outside the burial chamber because Egyptians believed the mummy would not be able to eat, hear or move in the afterlife if this ceremony did not take place. The mummy was then laid in the burial chamber along with all his belongings, the canopic jars and the Book of the Dead, which was not actually a book, but a collection of over 200 magic spells written on papyrus. This book contained instructions on how to achieve eternal life. Then the tomb was sealed. | The 70 Day Process

85: Early in Egyptian history, Anubis was a god of the dead and is the name for a jackal-headed god that is associated with the mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. Anubis is depicted in funerary contexts where he is shown attending to the mummies of the deceased or sitting atop a tomb protecting it. In fact, during embalming, the "head embalmer" wore an Anubis costume. | Canopic jars were an important part of the mummification process. The body's internal organs were stored in these jars. They were always grouped in fours and placed alongside the sarcophagi and were supposedly guarded by the 4 sons of the god Horus -the four protective spirits - human, baboon, falcon and jackal. | The funerary Shabti figurines were placed in tombs among the grave goods and were intended to act as substitutes for the deceased, should she/he be called upon to do manual labor in the afterlife. The Shabti is one of the most commonly represented objects in Egyptology and sometimes covered the floor around a sarcophagus. | Sarcophagus refers to the carved and generally stone case in which the linen-wrapped mummy was placed. They were usually carved, decorated or built ornately. Some were built to be freestanding above ground, or as an elaborate tomb. Others were for burial or placed in a crypt and were the external layer of protection for a royal Egyptian mummy, with several layers of coffins nested within.

86: Alabaster has been prized since ancient times for its beauty and soft glow, especially when used for candle holders. It is a soft, translucent mineral composite that is similar in appearance to marble. Many beautiful color variations naturally occurs in this stone and each piece is a completely and natural occurrence.

87: Cartouche | A cartouche is an oblong, or oval magical rope which was drawn to contain the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics that spelled out the name of the King or Queen. The "cartouche" can be found on Egyptian monuments, jewelry and papyrus documents. The magical rope was used to surround the name and protect it.

88: Museum of Egyptian Antiquities

89: Zahi Hawass, Secretary of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, has been excavating in Egypt for more than 30 years. He is extremely concerned about the conservation and protection of Egypt's monuments and antiquities. | The greatest collection of Egyptian antiquities is, without a doubt, that of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known as the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt. It is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities and was opened in 1902. It has over 120,000 items with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities houses the world's largest collection of pharaohs' antiquities and many treasures of King Tutankhamun. Apart from the Tutankhamun exhibits upstairs, there are countless coffins, amulets, shabtis, household items, etc. Also upstairs is the Mummy Room where you can come face to face with some of the great rulers of Ancient Egypt.

90: There is probably no more famous group of artifacts in the world then those associated with the discovery of King Tutankhamun's tomb. The collection has traveled the world, setting attendance records whether they are in Egypt or on tour around the world. When Howard Carter and his associates found the tomb in 1922, it was as though they were returning to the funeral ceremonies more than thirty centuries ago. Tutankhamun's tomb contained four gilded shrines nested one inside the other. Two of his three coffins are on display at the Cairo Museum in the same room as his famous gold Death Mask, along with stunning jewelry. The third coffin was 296 pounds of solid gold. The displays in this room alone can occupy one for a considerable time. Tutankhamun, who ascended to the throne in 1334 BC, at the age of 9 or 10 was the son of Akhenaten. Akhenaten, who married Nefertiti, who may have been Tut's mom, but there is speculation that Tut's mom was actually Kiya, who was also one of his father's wives. Tut had 6 older sisters. When Tut became King, he married his half sister Ankhesenamun, who later changed her name to Ankhesenpaaten. King Tut and his wife had two daughters, that were stillborn and found buried in the tomb. For most of his reign he was a little more than a figurehead of a government that began reestablishing the stability of the traditional art and religion torn down his father and predecessor, Akhenaten. Speculation has long swirled over King Tutankhamun's death at age 19. A hole in his skull fueled speculation he was murdered, until a 2005 CT scan rule that out, finding the hole was likely from the mummification process. The contemporary medical testing shows that Tut had a cleft palate and a club foot, walked with a cane, had a broken leg and was suffering from malaria at the time that he died some 3,300 years ago.

92: If you reject the food, Ignore the customs, Fear the religion, Avoid the people, You may as well Stay home. | Traffic | People | Buildings | Memories

94: Khan el- Khalili

95: The Khan el-Khalili is a covered souk (market), built in 1382 and is one of the most interesting bazaars not only in Egypt, but in the Middle East. The market first opened in the Middle Ages and exists today mainly for the tourists. You will find many bargains here, but first you must barter for the goods you want to buy. This market can be found within the heart of Islamic Cairo on one of Cairo's oldest streets. It is always busy and full of character. The Medieval atmosphere of this traditional market together with the labyrinth layout of the streets, give visitors a glimpse what medieval markets once were like. Shops in this district are legendary for fine brassware, copper, perfumes, gold, leather, antiques, spices, jewelry, belly dancing outfits, traditional Egyptian souvenirs, clothing and more.

96: Saladin Citadel of Cairo | The Saladin Citadel of Cairo is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Egypt. The mosque was built between 1828 and 1848. It is one of the world's greatest monuments to medieval warfare, as well as a highly visible landmark on Cairo's eastern skyline. The Citadel houses a number of museums, ancient mosques and other sites such as the Al-Gawhara Palace, the National Military Museum and the Police Museum. The Citadel of Cairo has been called a grand castle and still contains many artifacts and surviving properties of the ancient civilization.

97: Our Final Night | The Pharaohs Dinner Cruise

98: Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn't do, than the ones you did do. | So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.

99: Our Farewell Group Photo

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