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General Travel

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FC: Old Kingdom Egypt | Josh Avila and Tiffany Vergara

1: Map of Old Kingdom Egypt

2: Method of Writing | Writing *The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. They invented written scripts that could be used to record this information. *The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is the hieroglyphic. However, throughout three thousand years of ancient Egyptian civilization, at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. Using these scripts, scribes were able to preserve the beliefs, history, and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls. *One of the keys to unlocking the secrets of ancient Egyptian writing was the ‘Rosetta Stone.’

3: Egyptian Hieroglyphics

4: Attractions/Architecture *The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom. *There are about 80 pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The most well known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the ‘Great Pyramid.’ *Temples: the ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh. The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last forever. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved into the stone then brightly painted. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses.

5: Interesting Facts *The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural mummies. Later the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert. However, they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert. Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. Today we call this process mummification. During the mummification process, the internal organs were removed from the body. Before about 1,ooo B.C. the internal organs were often put back in to the body after being dried. When this happened, the ancient Egyptians placed solid or empty canopic jars in the person’s tomb. *According to Dr. Obenga: “the ancient Greeks traced all human inventions to the Egyptians. From Calculus, Geometry, Astronomy and Dice Games to Writing.

6: Art *Art in Egypt is literally everywhere. Some examples of ancient Egyptian art are pottery, stoneware, ceramics, statues, painting, glass, furniture, and papyrus (which they also used for writing. * The combination of geometric regularity is characteristic of all ancient Egyptian art which was often described as cubed and constrained. It’s purpose was to keep alive the history of the individual and give eternal life to the Pharoahs. Most sculptures showed the individual as eternally young and beautiful, staring straight ahead, their gaze lost in contemplation. Another major component of Egyptian statues lies in the fact that they had to follow strict rules.

9: The ancient Egyptians traded with some of the old cultures; Rome and Greece were the most successful traders. They sold wheat and meat and everything that you could possibly trade.

10: The ancient Egyptians had many gods like the Greek, they had roughly around 2200 gods. People believed that a person had 3 souls.

11: Ancient Egyptian Gods | This is one of the great Egyptian gods known as Sun God Ra. | This is another great god, he is known as Anubis

12: Pork Beef Deer (Gazelles) Lamb Goat The ancient Egyptians | The ancient Egyptians ate the foods above, the meat is mostly what the rich people ate while the others just ate vegetables.

13: Beans Chick peas Lentils Green peas Leeks Lettuce Garlic Onions

14: archery boxing fencing chariot riding hockey swimming wrestling swimming

15: the ancient Eyptians had olyimpics like the Greek.

16: Entertainment *Egyptians spent their spare time doing a wide variety of things; many of these activities are shown on tomb walls. Dramatizations were held in the temples but the most important source of entertainment and relaxation was the Nile River. Activities on the river included fishing, river boa outings, swimming, hunting crocodiles and hippos, and boat games where two teams of men in boats with long poles would try to push each other into the water. Hunting in the desert was another great pastime, especially for nobleman. Men first hunted on foot. Other sources of entertainment were playing music and (for the wealthy) holding parties.

17: Clothing/Dress *All clothes were almost always made of linen which is made from flax. *Workers wore loincloths made of animal hide and linen. They also wore simple tunics and dresses. *Clothes of the wealthy people: men and women wore long see through robes that were pleated. Better off people wore wide clothes of white cloth. Wealthy people did not wear more jewelry or fancier clothes to show wealth. They did wear gold jewelry and the most transparent clothes. *Both men and women wore a new wig every day. Wigs were made of human hair or wool. *Everyone of rich or poor status wore jewelry. They wore rings, necklaces, and earrings. *Both men and women wore makeup. Their eyes were rimmed, eyebrows were painted, and eyelashes were darkened with a black powder called kohl. The red cheek powder was called ochre. They used a dye called henna to redden their nails and hair. *People usually went barefoot and carried their sandals, wearing them only when needed. The sandals were made of palm fiber or braided papyrus. *Priests’ clothing: they could not wear leather sandals or wool clothing (considered unclean). They wore a leopard robe when serving the god Amun. In many cults (churches), they wore no wig.

18: At first there was only Nun. Nun was the dark waters of chaos. One day a hill rose up out of the waters. This hill was called Ben-Ben. On this hill stood Atum, the first god. Atum coughed and spat out Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. Shu and Tefnut had two children. First there was Geb, teh god of the earth. Then there was Nut, the goddess of the sky. Shu lifted up Nut so that she became a canopy over Geb. Nut and Geb had four children named Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nepthys. Osiris was the king of the earth and Isis was the queen. Osiris was a good king and he ruled over the earth for many years. However, everything was not well. Seth was jealous of Osiris because he wanted to be the ruler of the earth. He grew and angrier and angrier until one day he killed Osiris. Osiris went down to the underworld and Seth remained on earth and became king. Osiris and Isis had one son called Horus. Horus battled against Seth and regained the throne. After that, Horus was the king of the earth and Osiris was the king of the underworld. The End

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