S: Hawaii 2013
FC: The Island of Hawaii | January 2013
1: Ka Lae The Southernmost Point in the USA
2: Green Sands Beach Papakolea Beach is a green sand beach located near South Point, in the Kau district of the island of Hawaii. One of only two green sand beaches in the World, the other being in Galapagos Islands.
11: At Sulphur Banks (Ha`akulamanu), volcanic gases seep out of the ground along with groundwater steam. These gases are rich in carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide -- the gas that smells like rotten eggs. Some sulfur gases deposit pure crystals at Sulphur Bank. Other sulfur gases form sulfuric acid which breaks down the lava to clay. This clay is stained red and brown with iron oxide.
12: Thurston Lava Tube Lava tubes are natural conduits through which lava travels beneath the surface of a lava flow, expelled by a volcano during an eruption. They can be actively draining lava from a source, or can be extinct, meaning the lava flow has ceased and the rock has cooled and left a long, cave-like channel
13: Kilauea Caldera and Halema'uma'u Crater The caldera (a very large crater formed by collapse) is about 2 miles wide and more than 3 miles long.
16: Rainbow Falls | Kulaniapia Falls | Akaka Falls
18: Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park The historical park preserves the site where, up until the early 19th century, Hawaiians who broke a kapu (one of the ancient laws) could avoid certain death by fleeing to this place of refuge or puuhonua. The offender would be absolved by a priest and freed to leave.