S: Holy Land Educational Tour 2012 Israel A-Z Monica Reagan Nickum
FC: Holy Land Educational Tour February 2012 | Israel A-Z Monica Reagan Nickum
1: Mediterranean at Tel Aviv | Ancient pottery at Masada
2: In February of 2012, I took a trip to a place I never had any interest in seeing. I saw in my head a barren place with strife and war and danger all around. A place without modern conveniences and a place that would not welcome me. But I was to be pleasantly surprised when I arrived in Israel. The place that was "barren" was actually green, lush and beautiful. The strife and war and danger - though present - actually seemed to be quite peaceful and calm. The modern conveniences I thought would be missing were not only found, but really were more modern and more convenient than those I dealt with on a regular basis back in the United States. Every preconceived idea I had of what I would encounter during my stay was blown away and I came back from Israel with an appreciation for their culture, their community and their faith. From the moment I arrived, I was surprised by the technology to be found. Seeing a solar panel and water collection tank on top of even the meanest of dwellings made me think about the wastefulness of American culture. The government in Israel is committed to preserving any natural resource they can, while we don't think twice about leaving water running and lights on. The water lines running through the dirt to supply water to the plants and trees - a national treasure in and of themselves - was a novel idea
3: The most important part of the entire trip to me, by far, has become apparent to me now that I am home and back in my ministry. I see it every time I look at the scriptures. I find myself yearning to dig deeper, to find that spot on the map, to recognize a name or place or date. The trip has given me a new passion for the Word. When I heard people saying there, "I will never look at the Bible the same way again...", I thought how nice a sentiment it was. But it wasn't until I was back in my home that it became true for me. I find myself now wanting to tell others the things I learned, the insight I gained. I am now far more interested in the news I hear on the television or internet regarding the possibility of war with Iran or fighting in the Gaza strip. I know understand the passion with which the Israeli people hold on to their promised land and I can relate a little better to their history and some of the cultural biases held against them by the rest of the world. Going to Israel - the land I formally thought of as barren and almost "imaginary" - has given me a new way to look at the Bible and my relationship with Christ as well as how I look at my responsibility as a pastor and I am grateful each and every day for the opportunity I have had to to make this journey. | that I wonder sometimes if anyone stateside would have ever thought of for watering the grass or crops. But, due to the care and thoughtfulness of the Israeli people, their land is now fertile and beautiful. Tradition was stamped on every street corner in every town and on every face. Walking down roads named after King Solomon or into hotels named after King David... Seeing gates named as they were in the times of King Solomon or even Jesus... Knowing that generation after generation had walked the same street my feet were touching... And knowing without a doubt that in fifty years, the house I am living in, the street I live on, the view I now look at will be gone, changed, demolished or forgotten, made me appreciate even more what I was seeing. It makes me feel as if the world I live in daily - in my country - is so fleeting. Where is our history? Knocked down for high rises and paved over. The monument King David built for his son, Absalom, was touching to me as it stands to this day as a testament of his love for his son. I thought to myself after seeing it, what will I leave for my children as a testament of my love for them? And I resolved to be a better mother, a better wife and a better friend to those who love me and depend on me.
4: The Aquaducts
6: Matthew 5: 1-12 Now when he saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, and he began to teach them, saying: "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called Sons of God. Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you." | Mount of the Beatitudes
7: Opposite page: Church of the Beatitudes Top left: Detail on bench in garden Top right: Columns on outside of church Far right: Cross on dome of church Far bottom: Mosaic in courtyard of church Right: Doors into church Above: View of Sea of Galilee from church
10: Beit She'an | Now the Philistines fought against Israel; the Israelites fled before them, and many fell slain on Mount Gilboa. The Philistines pressed hard after Saul and his sons, and they killed his sons Jonathan, Abinadab and Malki-Shua. The fighting grew fierce around Saul, and when the archers overtook him, they wounded him critically. Saul said to his armor-bearer, "Draw your sword and run me through, or these uncircumcised fellows will come and run me through and abuse me." But his armor-bearer was terrified and would not do it; so Saul took his own sword and fell on it. When the armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he too fell on his sword and died with him. So Saul and his three sons and his armor-bearer and all his men died together the same day. When the Israelites along the valley and those across the Jordan saw that the Israelite army had fled and that Saul and his son had died, they abandoned their towns and fled. And the Philistines came and occupied them. The next day, the Philistines came to strip the dead, they found Saul and his three sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. They cut off his head and stripped off his armor, and they sent messengers throughout the land of the Philistines to proclaim the news in the temple of their idols and among their people. | They put his armor in the temple of the Ashtoreths and fastened his body to the wall of Beth Shan. When the people of Jabesh Gilead heard of what the Philistines had done to Saul, all their valiant men journeyed through the night to Beth Shan. They took down the bodies of Saul and his sons from the wall of Beth Shan and went to Jabesh, where they burned them. Then they took their bones and buried them under a tamarisk tree at Jabesh, and they fasted seven days. | 1 Samuel 31
11: Theatre at Beit She'an | Above: Theatre at Beit She'an; top right: door detail; right: box seat; bottom right: top row is critics' seats; below: stage; bottom left: steps leading to seating; top left: entrance by stage
12: Beit She'an | A public latrine in Beit She'an | Theatre view from city | Mosaic tile in the ruins of a Roman house.
13: Slyvanus Street | The business district street is lined with columns as they fell during a major earthquake that devastated the city. | Shop walls and columns stand on the business thoroughfare. | and Shops
14: The Temple today (left) and model (above) | Paladius Street | The Temple, Nyphoneum and the Central Monument. The Agora is the empty rectangle behind the others.
15: Beit She'an Tel | These basalt boulders are the remains of the walls of a massive fortress from the time of King David and King Solomon, destroyed in a raging fire during the military campaign of Shishak king of Egypt in the region, five years after the death of King Solomon.
16: Roman Baths | The bathhouse compound was comprised of a number of buildings, of which the bathing halls were the central feature. The compound included a swimming pool, massage rooms, public latrines, and other conveniences. Some of the facilities faced an open courtyard (palaestra) paved with mosaic floors. | The bathhouse featured prominently in Roman social life. Rich and poor alike could afford the minimal entrance fee (children were admitted free), frequenting the baths not only for the sake of cleanliness, but to meet friends for a chat, enjoy a game of dice, or close a business deal. | Little brick pillars supported the raised floor of the hot rooms. Hot air circulating through this underground space, heated the marble floor and the room above. Outside the building, fire stoked in a furnace by slaves sent hot air under the floors and through clay pipes in the walls up to chimneys on the roof. The floors and walls became so hot that the heat could be dry as in a sauna, or steamy, as in a Turkish bath.
17: The cold plunge-baths or swimming pools were available for a nice dip to close the pores, followed by a relaxing loll by the poolside. | To work up a nice lather before washing it all away in the baths, the Romans might take some sort of exercise, like wrestling or weightlifting. | After all the steam in the caladrium (hot room), the Romans would relax in the tepidarium (warm room).
18: Bethlehem | In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world. (This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.) And everyone went to his own town to register. So Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David, because he belonged to the house and line of David. He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child. While they were there, the time came for the baby to be born, and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in the cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn. | Luke 2: 1-7
19: Church of the Nativity | The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is maintained by the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic authorities. All three maintain monastic communities on site. It was originally built in 327 but was burnt down in 529. The current basilica was rebuilt in its present form in 565. When the Persians invaded in 614, they did not destroy the structure. According to legend, their commander was moved by the depiction inside the church of the three Magi wearing Persian clothing and commanded the building be spared. The Crusaders made repairs and additions to the building and the first King of Jerusalem was crowned in the church. Today it covers approximately 12,000 square meters. The compound is known to house the Grotto of the Nativity, the main Basilica of the Nativity, the Church of St. Catherine, and numerous chapels including the Chapel of St. Jerome.
20: Basilica of the Nativity | The Basilica of the Nativity is maintained by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. It includes the "Door of Humility", a very low door through which the basilica is entered. Stairways on either side of the sanctuary lead down to the Grotto.
22: The Grotto of the Nativity , an underground cave located beneath the basilica, enshrines the site where Jesus is said to have been born. The exact spot is marked beneath an altar by a 14-pointed silver star set into the marble floor and surrounded by silver lamps. Another altar in the grotto, marks the site were traditionally Mary laid the newborn Baby in the manger. | Upper portion of the Altar of the Nativity
23: Church of St. Catherine | The Roman Catholic church adjoining the Greek Orthodox is where the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem celebrates Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. It was built in the Latin Gothic revival style and has since been updated according to the liturgical trends.
24: Under the Church of St. Catherine are found numerous chapels including the Chapel of St. Joseph, commemorating the angel's appearance to Joseph commanding him to flee to Egypt; the Chapel of the Innocents, commemorating the children killed by Herod; and the Chapel of St. Jerome, where traditionally he translated the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate).
25: Caesarea by the Sea | Then he called two of his centurions and ordered them, "Get ready a detachment of two hundred soldiers, seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen to go to Caesarea at nine tonight. Provide mounts for Paul so that he may be taken safely to Governor Felix." He wrote a letter as follows: Claudius Lysias, To His Excellency, Governor Felix: Greetings. This man was seized by the Jews and they were about to kill him, but I came with my troops and rescued him, for I had learned that he is a Roman citizen. I wanted to know why they were accusing him, so I brought him to their Sanhedrin. I found that the accusation had to do with questions about their law, but there was no charge against him that deserved death or imprisonment. When I was informed of a plot to be carried out against the man, I sent him to you at once. I also ordered his accusers to present to you their case against him. So the soldiers, carrying out their orders took Paul with them during the night, and brought him as far as Antipatris. The next day they let the cavalry go on with him, while they returned to the barracks. When the cavalry arrived in Caesarea, they delivered the letter to the governor and handed Paul over to him. The governor read the letter and asked what province he was from. Learning that he was from Cicilia, he said, "I will hear your case when the accusers get here." Then he ordered that Paul be kept under guard in Herod's palace. | Acts 23: 23-35
26: The Mediterranean Sea
27: In the Classical World, Planning and Aesthetics principles were clear and unambiguous. The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders were elaborated by the Greeks, and later, adopted by the Romans, with some variations. Each order bears its own rules and particular ornamental elements. Columns capitals express these different orders. | Columnry | Sarcophagi
28: Roman Theatre
30: Herod's | Top Left: View of palace remains and Mediterranean Sea Top Right: Location of inner garden and drawing Bottom Left: Roman well on site Bottom Center: Palace remains Bottom Right: Plaque with name "Pontius Pilate" found on site
31: Palace | Top Left: View of sea Top Right: View of Hippodrome Center: Mosaic by pool Bottom Left: Pool Bottom Right: View of sea overlook
32: Caesarea Phillippi | Mark 8: 27-30 Jesus and his disciples went on to the villages around Caesarea Phillippi. On the way he asked them, "Who do people say I am?" They replied, "Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." "But what about you?", he asked. "Who do you say I am?" Peter answered, "You are the Christ." Jesus warned them not to tell anyone about him. | The conquests of Alexander the Great brought the Greeks to the East, and to Banyas. The Greeks were taken by the natural beauty of the site, touched particularly by the cave in which the springs welled. It is no wonder that they sanctified this cave, dedicating it to Pan, god of the forest and the shepherds. Towards the end of the first century BCE, the Romans incorporated the site into Herod's empire. To show his esteem, Herod built a temple near the springs and named it for the Roman emperor Augustus. Herod's son, Phillippus, established the seat of his rule here, calling the town Caesarea Phillippi. The sanctuary is located on an elevated terrace above the springs, enclosed on three sides by cliff walls. The Pan cave was special, due to the deep natural chasm in the floor, which led to ground water. Animal sacrifices were thrown into this chasm.
34: The bones of goats that took part in the rituals were buried in the rectangular niches in the main hall, together with offerings of pottery, glass vessels and coins. The rituals were conducted on the roof in front of the rock-carved niche. On a Panias city coin, at the top of this text, Pan appears playing the flute and making the goat dance. | The Court of Pan and the Nymphs... An artificial cave was quarried in the cliff face opposite the courtyard, and there the statue of Pan was placed. Pagan worship was carried out in this courtyard. Later, two more niches were added to the rock face. According to the Greek inscriptions on the rock scarp, one niche housed a sculpture of Echo, the mountain nymph and Pan's consort, and the other a statue of Pan's father, Hermes, son of the nymph Maia.
35: The Sand Verses | Stucco from the Banias Temple
36: Capernaum | Mark 1: 21-32 They went to Capernaum, and when the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. The people were amazed at his teaching, because he taught them as one who had authority, not as the teachers of the law. Just then a man in their synagogue who was possessed by an evil spirit cried out, "What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are - the Holy One of God!" "Be quiet!" said Jesus sternly. "Come out of him!" The evil spirit shook the man violently and came out of him with a shriek. The people were all so amazed that they asked each other, "What is this? A new teaching - and with authority! He even gives orders to evil spirits and they obey him." News about him spread quickly over the whole region of Galilee. As soon as they left the synagogue, they went with James and John to the home of Simon and Andrew. Simon's mother-in-law was in bed with a fever, and they told Jesus about her. So he went to her, took her hand and helped her up. The fever left her and she began to wait on them. That evening after sunset the people brought to Jesus all the sick and demon-possessed. The whole town gathered at the door, and Jesus healed many who had various diseases. He also drove out many demons, but he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was.
37: These are the types of steps that would have been used to transport the young man taken by his friends up to the roof to be lowered down to Jesus for healing. They led up to a thatched roof. | The remains of the house belonging to Peter , now under a Catholic church.
38: Synagogue | Jesus taught in this synagogue located in the town of Capernaum, just footsteps away from the home of Peter's mother-in-law.
39: The main industries in the town of Capernaum were fishing and the production of olive oil. The olive oil would have left the town financially well off.
40: 1 Kings 18: 20-40 So Ahab sent word throughout all Israel and assembled the prophets on Mount Carmel. Elijah went before the people and said, "How long will you waver between two opinions? If the LORD is God, follow him; but if Baal is God, follow him." But the people said nothing. Then Elijah said to them, "I am the only one of the Lord's prophets left, but Baal has four hundred and fifty prophets. Get two bulls for us. Let them choose one for themselves, and let them cut it into pieces and put it on the wood but not set fire to it. I will prepare the other bull and put it on the wood but not set fire to it. Then you call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the LORD. The god who answers by fire -- he is God." Then all the people said, "What you say is good." Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, "Choose one of the bulls and prepare it first, since there are so many of you. Call on the name of your god, but do not light the fire." So they took the bull given them and prepared it. Then they called on the name of Baal from morning till noon. "O Baal, answer us!" they shouted. But there was no response; no one answered. And they danced around the altar they had made. At noon Elijah began to taunt them. "Shout louder!" he said. "Surely he is a god! Perhaps he is deep in thought, or busy, or traveling. Maybe he is sleeping and must be awakened." So they shouted louder and slashed themselves with swords and spears, as was their custom, until their blood flowed. Midday passed, and they continued their frantic prophesying until the time for the evening sacrifice. But there was no response, no one answered, no one paid attention. | Mount Carmel
41: Then Elijah said to the people, "Come here to me." They came to him, and he repaired the altar of the LORD, which was in ruins. Elijah took twelve stones, one for each of the tribes descended from Jacob, to whom the word of the LORD had come saying, "Your name shall be Israel." With the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD, and he dug a trench around it large enough to hold two seahs of seed. He arranged the wood, cut the bull into pieces and laid it on the wood. Then he said to them, "Fill four large jars with water and pour it on the offering and on the wood." "Do it again," he said, and they did it again. At the time of the sacrifice, the prophet Elijah stepped forward and prayed: "O LORD, God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known today that you are God in Israel and that I am your servant and have done all these things at your command. Answer me, O LORD, answer me, so these people will know that you, O LORD, are God, and that you are turning their hearts back again." Then the fire of the LORD fell and burned up the sacrifice, the wood, the stones and the soil, and also licked up the water in the trench. When all the people saw this, they fell prostrate and cried, "The LORD - he is God! The LORD - he is God!" Then Elijah commanded them, "Seize the prophets of Baal. Don't let anyone get away!" They seized them, and Elijah had them brought down to the Kishon Valley and slaughtered there.
42: Dead Sea
43: Dead Sea Scrolls | In the summer of 1947, Bedouin shepherds were pasturing their flocks near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea. While looking for a goat that had wandered off into the cliffs, they came across a curious rock crevice. When they threw a stone into a cave opening they found, they were surprised to hear a strange echo. They crawled inside, and in the dimness they spied large, whole jars standing on the floor. Inside the jars, they found folded pieces of leather, some of which were wrapped in cloth. That is how the secret of the Qumran Scrolls began to be revealed. | A museum dedicated to the Dead Sea Scrolls is now open. It is entered through an underground tunnel and copies of the scrolls are available for perusal. No photography is allowed inside the actual museum. When President George Bush ended his term in office, he visited Israel. For his visit, a separate room was made off the main viewing area and the actuals scrolls were put on display for him to look at as well as the Israeli people for a brief period afterwards.
44: Ein Gedi | 1 Samuel 24: 1-13 After Saul returned from pursuing the Philistines, he was told, "David is in the Dessert of En Gedi." So Saul took three thousand chosen men from all Israel and set out to look for David and his men near the Crags of the Wild Goats. He came to the sheep pens along the way; a cave was there, and Saul went in to relieve himself. David and his men were far back in the cave. The men said, "This is the day the LORD spoke of when he said to you, 'I will give your enemy into your hands for you to deal with as you wish.'" Then David crept up unnoticed and cut off a corner of Saul's robe. Afterward, David was conscience stricken for having cut off a corner of his robe. He said to his men, "The LORD forbid that I should do such a thing to my master, the LORD's anointed, or lift my hand against him; for he is the anointed of the LORD." With these words David rebuked his men and did not allow them to attack Saul. And Saul left the cave and went his way. Then David went out of the cave and called out to Saul, "My lord the king!" When Saul looked behind him, David bowed down and prostrated himself with his face to the ground. He said to Saul, "Why do you listen when men say, 'David is bent on harming you'? This day you have seen with your own eyes how the LORD delivered you into my hands in the cave. Some urged me to kill you, but I spared you; I said, 'I will not lift my hand against my master, because he is the LORD's anointed.' See, my father, look at this piece of your robe in my hand! I cut off the corner of your robe but did not kill you. Now understand and recognize that I am not guilty of wrongdoing or rebellion. May the LORD judge between you and me. And may the LORD avenge the wrongs you have done to me, but my hand will not touch you. As the old saying goes, 'From evildoers come evil deeds', so my hand will not touch you."
46: Genesis Land
48: The Golan Heights straddles the boundary between Syria and Israeli-held territory. Israel captured the Golan Heights during the 1967 Six Day War. Israel agreed to return about 5% of the territory to Syrian civilian control in the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. | Golan Heights
49: Mount Hazor | Joshua 11: 1-11 When Jaban king of Hazor heard of this, he sent word to Jobab king of Madon, to the kings of Shimron and Acshaph, and to the northern kings who were in the mountains, in the Arabah south of Kinnereth, in the western foothills and in Naphoth Dor on the west; to the Canaanites in the east and west; to the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites and Jebusites in the hill country; and to the Hivites below Hermon in the region of Mizpah. They came out with all their troops and a large number of horses and chariots -- a huge army, as numerous as the sand on the seashore. All these kings joined forces and made camp together at the Waters of Merom, to fight against Israel. The LORD said to Joshua, "Do not be afriad of them, because by this time tomorrow I will hand all of them over to Israel, slain. You are to hamstring their horses and burn their chariots." So Joshua and his whole army came against them suddenly at the Waters of Merom and attacked them, and the LORD gave them into the hand of Israel. They defeated them and pursued them all the way to Greater Sidon, to Misrephoth Maim, and to the Valley of Mizpah on the east, until no survivors were left. Joshua did to them as the LORD had directed: He hamstrung their horses and burned their chariots. At that time Joshua turned back and captured Hazor and put its king to the sword. (Hazor had been the head of all these kingdoms.) Everyone in it they put to the sword. They totally destroyed them, not sparing anything that breathed, and he burned up Hazor itself. | Solomon Gates
50: Clockwise from top: Walls remaining from Mt. Hazor complex; steps leading to complex; city walls still standing; view of valley from complex; excavation under way of city; pillar at entrance to complex; altar for human sacrifices in front of complex overlooking valley
51: Clockwise from top left: View from Mt. Hazor; ancient olive press; ruins of lookout portion of battlements; portion of walls; steps leading down to well.
52: Jerusalem | I rejoiced with those who said to me, "Let us go to the house of the LORD." Our feet are standing in your gates, O Jerusalem. Jerusalem is built like a city that is closely compacted together. That is where the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, to praise the name of the LORD according to the statute given to Israel. There the thrones for judgment stand, the thrones of the house of David. Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: "May those who love you be secure. May there be peace within your walls and security within your citadels." For the sake of my brothers and friends, I will say, "Peace be within you." For the sake of the house of the LORD our God, I will seek your prosperity. Psalm 122 - A song of ascents
53: The city walls have stood for centuries - rebuilt in most places as close to the original walls built by Kings David and Solomon as possible. The architect who was responsible for the rebuilding was promptly executed when it was discovered he had unintentionally left out a large portion of the original city when enclosing. His ancient tomb is just within the city gates.
54: Above: King David's monument to his son, Absalom Right top: View of southern wall of city Right bottom: Church within city Bottom: Date palm reaching as high as the city walls Left bottom: Israeli soldiers, 18-21 yrs old, keeping watch Left top: Passageway in the city
55: In Jerusalem, Christan and Muslim influences are seen in abundance testifying to the bloody history of the city in which representatives from both religions fought for control of the holy city. | Church of the Holy Sepulchre | Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount
56: Just outside the Western Wall or Wailing Wall, a giant golden menorah stands in waiting for the return of the Messiah and the rebuilding of the new Temple. Jewish women have contributed to the gold needed for the remaking of these instruments of worship needed for this Temple. There are more items for the new Temple being prepared in expectation of the Messiah's return. | A statue commemorating King David and his harp stands within the gates of Jerusalem. | An ancient mosaic illustrating the city of Jerusalem at one point, explained by our guide. | Arrow slits used to defend against attackers are still present in the walls of Jerusalem attesting to another dangerous time.
57: "Eye of the Needle" built to help fortify the city against invasion. Only one person could enter at a time. Horses (or camels) would have a very difficult time! | The Golden Gates (or Eastern) through which the Messiah is expected to return. Muslim inhabitants situated a graveyard in front as a tactic to deter the Messiah from entering. Below: A Muslim grave at the entrance to the Eastern Gates. | Jerusalem's Gates | Plainer, yet just as ancient, the Joppa Gate is differentiated by only a small sign and mezzuzah on the inside of the entrance.
58: Southern Gate and Steps | Long and wide steps reach across these ancient gates - three to enter and two to exit - long a classroom to Rabbis and their flocks. Jesus would have taught his followers here as well. The day we visited, a teacher taught a large group of students on the same steps.
59: Antonias Fortress | To the right: "The King Game" was played with sheep's knuckles. The soldiers would pick one of their own and make him 'king'. They would give him a robe, scepter, and would play homage to him. During the course of the day, the soldiers would gamble for all his possessions and for who got to kill him. Then they would make a game of killing him. | Above: Table found in the former Roman holding area in the Antonias Fortress, now maintained by Catholic Nuns. Below: Mosaic on wall of fortress basement. Right: Roman bullet on display in basement of Antonias Fortress. | The Antonias Fortress was a Roman jail in which prisoners condemned to die were held in preparation for their execution.
60: Caiaphas's House | Mark 14: 53-65 They took Jesus to the high priest, and all the chief priests, elders and teachers of the law came together. Peter followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest. There he sat with the guards and warmed himself at the fire. The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any. Many testified falsely against him, but their statements did not agree. Then some stood up and gave this false testimony against him. "We heard him say, 'I will destroy this man-made temple and in three days will build another, not made by man.'" Yet even then their testimony did not agree. Then the high priest stood up before them and asked Jesus, "Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?" But Jesus remained silent and gave no answer. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?" "I am," said Jesus. "And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." The high priest tore his clothes, "Why do we need any more witnesses?" he asked. "You have heard the blasphemy. What do you think?" They all condemned him as worthy of death. Then some began to spit at him; they blindfolded him, struck him with their fists, and said, "Prophesy!" And the guards took him and beat him.
62: When these underground caves were rediscovered in 1889, their physical characteristics, their proximity to Caiaphas palace, and their contiguity with the Sacred Pit (dungeon), all suggested the public jail where, according to a 4th Century Jerusalem tradition not recorded in the gospels, Jesus would have been scourged not only by Pilate but also by Caiaphus, and where the apostles Peter and John would have been held and scourged for preaching the name of Jesus in the temple after the resurrection (Acts 5: 19-42).
63: Sacred Pit (dungeon) Excavations uncovered 3 Byzantine crosses engraved in the orifice at the top, 1 red and 4 black oxide crosses on the walls, and the silhouette of a praying figure on the lower south wall. These findings along with the ruins of a church and a large number of mosaics, coins and religious artifacts, testify to the presence of a 5th Century shrine venerated by the Byzantine community. Prompted by the dungeon-like appearance of the pit and its proximity to Caiaphas' palace thought to have been located in this guard area, the Byzantines recalled here Jesus' imprisonment overnight as he stood trial before Caiaphus and the Sanhedrin.
64: Mark 14: 66-72 While Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant girls of the high priest came by. When she saw Peter warming himself, she looked closely at him. "You also were with that Nazarene Jesus," she said. But he denied it. "I don't know or understand what you're talking about," he said, and went out into the entryway. When the servant girl saw him there, she said again to those standing around, "This fellow is one of them." Again he denied it. After a little while, those standing near said to Peter, "Surely you are one of them, for you are a Galilean." He began to call down curses on himself, and he swore to them, "I don't know this man you're talking about." Immediately the rooster crowed the second time. Then Peter remembered, the word Jesus had spoken to him: "Before the rooster crows twice you will disown me three times." And he broke down and wept.
65: City of David | Jerusalem was first established on the hill outside of the current walled city of Jerusalem almost 4,000 years ago, during the Canaanite Period (Middle Bronze Age 11). Flanking the hill are the Kidron Valley and the Central Valley and Mt. Moriah rises to the north. A journey to the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem, is a journey to the source. The City of David was the first capital of the tribes of Israel and the spiritual and political center of the Jewish nation. | "Jerusalem, hills enfold it, and the Lord enfolds his people now and forever." (Psalm 125:2)
66: Church of All Nations in the Garden of Gethsemane | Top left: Cross on top of church Top center: Front of church Top right: Ironwork wall Bottom right: Frieze of Jesus in garden Bottom center: Ceiling of porch Bottom left: Garden
67: Metal mound marks spot identified as location of Jesus' prayers. | Mass being said in Church
68: Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Coptic Orthodox Monastery | The site of this church inside the old city walls of Jerusalem was identified as Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), where Jesus was crucified, and is said to also contain the place where Jesus was buried (the Sepulchre) by Queen Helena, mother to Constantine. It has been an important pilgrimage destination for Christians since at least the 4th century. There is no permanent presence in the church by Anglican, Nontrinitarian or Protestant Christians. The Garden Tomb tends to be the place recognized by these groups as Christ's burial and crucifixion site.
70: The primary custodians of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre are the Greek Orthodox with the Coptic Orthodox, the Ethiopian Orthodox and the Syriac Orthodox having lesser responsibilities. A Coptic Orthodox monastery is found on the roof of the complex. The small green doors indicate where the monks live and they can been seen occasionally praying by their doors (see right). Incidents between the different denominations involving fights and brawls have occurred through the years and often erupt over small issues like a chapel door being left open or a chair being moved.
71: Paintings depicting the betrayal (left), trial (right), crucifixion (below, center), preparation of the body for burial (below, left), and burial (below, right) adorn the walls in the church.
72: The Dome of the Rotunda
73: In the center of the Rotunda is the chapel called The Edicule, which contains the Holy Sepulchre itself. The Edicule has two rooms. The first one holds The Angel's Stone, a fragment of stone believed to have sealed the tomb after Jesus' burial. The second one is believed to be the tomb itself. | The Edicule
74: Made in 1588, the silver plated Latin altar was a gift of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand de Medici. The altar was intended to be placed at the Stone of Unction. But as the Latins were prevented from placing it there, the altar received a place at the site where the Latins on Golgotha remember the 11th Station (Crucifixion). In six silver-plated panels are represented scenes of the Passion.
75: The Rock of Calvary seen under glass. | The Stone of Anointing Just inside the entrance is The Stone of Anointing or Unction, which tradition claims to be the spot where Jesus' body was prepared for burial by Joseph of Arimathea. The present stone was added in 1810.
76: Church of St. Anne | The Church of St. Anne is the best preserved Crusader church in Jerusalem. It marks the traditional site of the home of Jesus' maternal grandparents, Anne and Joachim, and the birthplace of Mary.
77: The church is renowned for its remarkable acoustics and reverberating echoes. The voices of even a small choral group can sound like a large congregation in a vast cathedral.
78: Garden of Gethsemane | Matthew 26: 36-46 Then Jesus went with his disciples to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to them, "Sit here while I go over there and pray." He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee along with him, and he began to be sorrowful and troubled. Then he said to them, "My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death. Stay here and keep watch with me." Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, "My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will." Then he returned to his disciples and found them sleeping. "Could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?" he asked Peter. "Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the body is weak." He went away a second time and prayed, "My Father, if it is not possible for this cup to be taken away unless I drink it, may your will be done." When he came back, he again found them sleeping, because their eyes were heavy. So he left them and went away once more and prayed the third time, saying the same thing. Then he returned to the disciples and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour is near, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us go! Here comes my betrayer!" | 2,000 year old olive tree in the Garden of Gethsemane
79: Garden Tomb | Luke 24: 1-6 On the first day of the week, very early in the morning, the women took the spices they had prepared and went to the tomb. They found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. While they were wondering about this, suddenly two men in clothes that gleamed like lightning stood beside them. In their fright the women bowed down with their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, "Why do you look for the living among the dead? He is not here; he has risen! Remember how he told you, while he was still with you in Galilee: 'The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, be crucified and on the third day be raised again.'" | Above: Engraving in tomb Right: Winepress Far right: Entrance to tomb
80: "So Zadok the priest... went down and caused Solomon to ride upon King David's mule, and brought him to Gihon. And Zadok the priest took the horn of oil out of the Tent, and anointed Solomon. And they blew the ram's horn; and all the people said: 'Long live King Solomon.'" (1 Kings 1:38-39) "This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper spring of waters of Gihon, and brought them straight down on the west side of the city of David." - (11 Chronicles 32:30) | The Gihon Spring | Jerusalem's Beating Heart | The Gihon Spring was once a pulsating spring, its waters alternately rising and subsiding. In the 18th century BCE, the Canaanite inhabitants of the city channeled the spring water along the eastern slope to irrigate fields in the Kidron Valley and to fill a reservoir to the south of the city. In the latter part of the 8th century BCE, King Hezekiah initiated an impressive system and diverted the water through a winding underground tunnel to the Pool of Shiloah which he fortified with walls.
81: Golgotha (Place of the Skull) | Luke 23: 26-35 As they led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus. A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. Jesus turned and said to them, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. For the time will come when you will say, 'Blessed are the barren women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!' Then they will say to the mountains, "Fall on us!" and to the hills, "Cover us!"' For if men do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?" Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed. When they came to the place called the Skull, there they crucified him, along with the criminals -- one on his right, the other on his left. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing."
82: Mount of Olives | Luke 19: 28-40 After Jesus had said this, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. As he approached Bethphage and Bethany at the hill called the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, saying to them, "Go to the village ahead of you, and as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there, which no one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you untying it?' tell him, 'The Lord needs it.'" Those who were sent ahead went and found it just as he had told them. As they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, "Why are you untying the colt?" They replied, "The Lord needs it." They brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks on the colt and put Jesus on it. As he went along, people spread their cloaks on the road. When he came near the place where the road goes down the Mount of Olives, the whole crowd of disciples began joyfully to praise God in loud voices for all the miracles they had seen: "Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord!" "Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!" Some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to Jesus, "Teacher, rebuke your disciples!" "I tell you," he replied, "if they keep quiet, the stones will cry out."
83: Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery
84: Pools of Bethesda
85: John 5: 1-9 Some time later, Jesus went up to Jerusalem for a feast of the Jews. Now there is in Jerusalem near the Sheep Gate a pool, which in Aramaic is called Bethesda and which is surrounded by five covered colonnades. Here a great number of disabled people used to lie - the blind, the lame, the paralyzed. One who was there had been an invalid for thirty-eight years. When Jesus saw him lying there and learned that he had been in this condition for a long time, he asked him, "Do you want to get well?" "Sir," the invalid replied. "I have no one to help me into the pool when the water is stirred. While I am trying to get in, someone else goes down ahead of me." Then Jesus said to him, "Get up! Pick up your mat and walk." At once the man was cured; he picked up his mat and walked. | Water channel led to Temple
86: Pool of Siloam | John 9: 1-7 As he went along, he saw a man blind from birth. His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?" Neither this man nor his parents sinned," said Jesus, "but this happened so that the work of God might be displayed in his life. As long as it is day, we must do the work of him who sent me. Night is coming, when no one can work. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world." Having said this, he spit on the ground, made some mud with the saliva, and put it on the man's eyes. "Go," he told him, "wash in the Pool of Siloam" (this words means Sent). So the man went and washed and came home seeing. His neighbors and those who had formerly seen him begging asked, "Isn't this the same man who used to sit and beg?" Some claimed that he was. Others said, "No, he only looks like him." But he himself insisted, "I am the man." | Left: Unearthed portion of the Pool of Siloam. The remainder is under property which the owners refuse to allow excavation. Above: A tunnel / stairway to the city under excavation.
87: Western Wall | formerly known as the Wailing wall | The Western Wall is located at the foot of the western side of the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple's courtyard and is one of the most sacred sites in Judaism outside of the Temple Mount itself. The western wall was closest to the Holy of Holies and therefore to pray by the Wall is particularly beneficial. It has been said, "Anyone who prays in the Temple in Jerusalem, it is as if he has prayed before the throne of glory because the gate of heaven is situated there and is open to hear prayer." Since the Western Wall is as close as pilgrims can get to the Holy of Holies, it makes sense that the western wall has ascended to the level of sacredness that it has.
88: Joppa | Acts 9: 36-43 In Joppa there was a disciple named Tabitha (which, when translated, is Dorcas), who was always doing good and helping the poor. About that time she became sick and died, and her body was washed and placed in an upstairs room. Lydda was near Joppa; so when the disciples heard that Peter was in Lydda, they sent two men and urged him, "Please come at once!" Peter went with them, and when he arrived he was taken upstairs to the room. All the widows stood around him, crying and showing him the robes and other clothing that Dorcas had made while she was still with them. Peter sent them all out of the room; then he got down on his knees and prayed. Turning toward the dead woman, he said, "Tabitha, get up." She opened her eyes, and seeing Peter she sat up. He took her by the hand and helped her to her feet. Then he called the believers and the widows and presented her to them alive. This became known all over Joppa, and many people believed in the Lord. Peter stayed in Joppa for some time with a tanner named Simon.
89: Statue of Faith On left: Jacob's Dream On right: Sacrifice of Isaac Top: Fall of Jericho
90: An amazingly beautiful city visible from Tiberius, Joppa (or sometimes called Joffa) hosts a colorful history dating back as far as Jonah, the "Infidels", Spanish Inquisition and even Napoleon. "The word of the LORD came to Jonah son ofAmittai: 'Go to the great city of Ninevah and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me.' But Jonah ran away from the LORD and headed for Tarshish. He went down to Joppa, where he found a ship bound for that port. After paying the fare, he went aboard and sailed for Tarshish to flee from the LORD." Jonah 1: 1-3
92: Jordan River | Matthew 3: 13-17 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. But John tried to deter him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" Jesus replied, "Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness." Then John consented. As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased."
94: Masada | According to Josephus, a 1st century Jewish Roman historian, Herod the Great fortified Masada as a refuge for himself in the event of a revolt. In 66 CE, at the beginning of the First Jewish-Roman War against the Roman Empire, a group of Jewish extremists called the Sicarii, overcame the Roman garrison of Masada. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, additional members of the Sicarii and numerous Jewish families fled Jerusalem and settled on the mountaintop, using it as a base for harassing the Romans. In 72, the Roman governor of ludaea, Lucius Flavius Silva headed the Roman legion and laid siege to Masada. The Roman legion surrounded Masada and built a wall and then a siege embankment against the western side of the plateau. When the rampart was complete in 73, the Romans finally breached the wall of the fortress with a battering ram. When the Roman troops entered the fortress, they discovered that its 960 inhabitants had set all the buildings but the food storerooms on fire and committed a mass suicide. The residents felt that death would be preferable to becoming slaves once again.
95: Top left: Scribe working Top center: Torah holder Right top: Ruins Right and center bottom: Dad Bottom left: Roman emcampments
99: Large Bathhouse
100: Commandant's House
101: John 21: 15-19 When they had finished eating, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you truly love me more than these?" "Yes, Lord," he said, "you know that I love you." Jesus said, "Feed my lambs." Again Jesus said, "Simon, son of John, do you truly love me?" He answered, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." Jesus said, "Take care of my sheep." The third time he said to him, "Simon son of John, do you love me?" Peter was hurt because Jesus asked him the third time, "Do you love me?" He said, "Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you." Jesus said, "Feed my sheep. I tell you the truth, when you were younger you dressed yourself and went where you wanted; but when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you were you do not want to go." Jesus said this to indicate the kind of death by which Peter would glorify God. Then he said to him, "Follow me!" | Tabgha | Peter's Primacy
102: Tel Dan | Judges 18: 27-31 Then they (the Danites) took what Micah had made, and his priest, and went on to Laish, against a peaceful and unsuspecting people. They attacked them with the sword and burned down their city. There was no one to rescue them because they lived a long way from Sidon and had no relationship with anyone else. The city was in a valley near Beth Rehob. The Danites rebuilt the city and settled there. They named it Dan after their forefather Dan, who was born to Israel - though the city used to be called Laish. There the Danites set up for themselves the idols, the son of Moses, and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the time of the captivity of the land. They continued to use the idols Micah had made, all the time the house of God was in Shiloh. | Top left: Walls of Dan Top right: "King" at the gate Bottom left: Walls with tree growing Bottom right: Altar
103: Genesis 14:13-16 One who had escaped came and reported this to Abram the Hebrew. Now Abram was living near the great trees of Mamre the Amorite, a brother of Eschol and Aner, all of whom were allied with Abram. When Abram heard that his relative had been taken captive, he called out the 318 trained men born in his household and went in pursuit as far as Dan. During the night Abram divided his men to attack them and he routed them, pursuing them as far as Hobah, north of Damascus. He recovered all the goods and brought back his relative Lot and his possessions, together with the women and the other people. | Top left: Two really wet parents, one with stylish pants Top right: View of the valley and Golam Heights in distance Bottom left: Abraham gate through which Abram would have entered the city (later named Dan)
104: Matthew 8: 23-27 Then he got into the boat and his disciples followed him. Without warning, a furious storm came up on the lake, so that the waves swept over the boat. But Jesus was sleeping. The disciples went and woke him, saying, "Lord, save us! We're going to drown!" | He replied, 'You of little faith, why are you so afraid?' Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. The men were amazed and asked, "What kind of man is this? Even the winds and the waves obey him!" | Sea of Galilee
106: Above: Gentleman who discovered 2,000 year old boat on shores of Sea of Galilee. Right: Preserved 2,000 year old boat discovered on shores of Sea of Galilee. | Artwork at the museum housing a 2,000 year old boat found on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. Below: Items found in 2,000 year old boat found on shores of Sea of Galilee.
107: 9/11 Memorial | Perched high on a hill next to the city of Jerusalem is a touching memorial to the lives lost in the Sept. 11, 2001 bombings that left thousands dead. The monument in the middle is surrounded by each of the names of those lost in the attack.
110: Zippori | Zippori is perched like a bird on a hill above Nazareth. This is the most logical location for Jesus' schooling and place of work as an artisan. It is most known for a mosiac called the "Mona Lisa of Galilee". | View of Nazareth in the distance and countryside from Zippori | Above: Chariot tracks in road Right: Main street of Zippori
111: Theatre and Crusader Keep
112: Mosaics on the floor in the home of a Roman show detailed scenes of Roman life including dress, food and entertainment. Most notable is the mosaic depicting a beautiful woman, known as the "Mona Lisa of Galilee"
114: All photos taken by and property of Monica Nickum Appreciation to Wikipedia for information regarding churches in Jerusalem