S: Southern United States Spring 2011 Volume 1
BC: Adventure continued in Volume II
FC: Southwestern United States | Motorhome Travel Adventure Spring 2011
1: SPRING 2011 SOUTH TO SOUTHWEST UNITED STATES
2: Upper Marlboro, Maryland to Tucson, Arizona
3: We began our trip with a visit to see good friends, Dan and Janice Harding. We talked and talked, went antiquing and played Blokus. We had so much fun reminising about old times and sharing the latest news about our families.
4: CLARKSON COVERED BRIDGE
5: AVE MARIA GROTTO The Ave Maria Grotto is located on the grounds of St. Bernard Abbey, the only Benedictine monastery of men in the State of Alabama, founded in 1891. The Grotto consists of a landscaped hillside of 125 small stone and cement structures, the handiwork of the creative genius of Brother Joseph Zoetl, O.S.B., a monk at the Abbey for almost 70 years.
6: Sarah Childress Polk | James Knox Polk
7: Parlor | Polk's Law Office | At the Polk Presidential Hall, we toured an exhibit of Middle Tennessee Samplers entitled "This My Name Shall Ever Have" | Clothes of James and Sarah Polk
8: HORSESHOE BEND MILITARY PARK | Gen. Andrew Jackson
9: Chief Menawa, Red Stick of the Creek Indians | On March 27, 1814, 3300 Tennessee militia, U.S. Regulars and allied warriors under his command defeated 1000 Red Sticks led by Chief Menawa. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend ended the Creek Indian War, and the peace treaty added 23 milliom acres of Creek land to the southeastern United States -- three-fifths of Alabama and one-fifth of Georgia. For Andrew Jackson, victory at Horseshoe Bend was the first step on the road to national fame and the White House. Nine months later, on January 8, 1815, he defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans, the last major battle of the War of 1812. | Horseshoe Bend of The Tallapoosa River
10: The Tuskegee name is an icon in African American history. It is synonymous with the tireless striving of a disenfranchised people to find a place for themselves in a society that was, at best, slow to make room. The school was the brainchild of former slave Lewis Adams. Adams organized African American support for a white politician, who then pushed through legislation in 1881 establishing a "Normal School for Colored Teachers at Tuskegee." From this seed, planted in repressive post-Reconstruction Alabama, the school flowered into a celebrated university and a symbol of African American achievement. Booker T. Washington met with his first class of 30 male and female students in a shanty on the grounds of a church, but soon obtained 100 acres of farmland that became the nucleus of Tuskegee Institute. He combined the school's original mandate to train teachers with his own beliefs, recruiting academics like George Washington Carver and instructors who could teach carpentry bricklaying, printing, and many other trades. | Carver Museum at The Tuskeegee Institute
11: TUSKEGEE AIRMEN | On a warm July day in 1941, 13 young African American men arrived at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to begin their training as Army Air Corps pilots. Though they had exhibited ability and courage in military conflicts from the Revolutionary War to World War I, most African Americans were either denied the chance to serve or assigned menial noncombatant roles with no chance for advancement. The idea that they could meet the high standards of military aviation generated the fiercest resistance of all. In their training at Moton Field, however, and in combat during World War II, the Tuskegee Airmen conclusively demonstrated the skill, bravery, quick thinking, and coolness under pressure demanded of a combat pilot. As they had done so manu times before, when given the opportunity, they flew in the face of assumption, proving they were equal to the task.
12: FORT TOULOUSE AND FORT JACKSON STATE HISTORIC SITE | Nestled at the confluence of the Coosa ad Tallapoosa Rivers, Fort Toulouse - Forts Jackson Site has been a part of over 6000 years of history. Fort Toulouse was a French Trading Port in the 1700s at the invitation of the Indians Following a victory over the Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, Andrew Jackson built a Fort on the site of the original site of the First Fort Toulouse
13: F. Scott Fitzgerald,author of such literary acclaimed novels as The Great Gatsby and Tender is the Night and his wife Zelda, artist and author of Save Me the Waltz, lived here at 919 Felder Ave. in Montgomery, AL in 1931-32. It is the only remaining residence left standing and contains paintings by Zelda and first editions by Scott as well as other artifacts of the Fitzgeralds. It has been declared a National Historic Landmark.
14: MONTGOMERY CAPITAL OF ALABAMA | CAPITOL BUILDING | ALABAMA ARCHIVE AND HISTORY MUSEUM | ALABAMA STATE HOUSE
15: FIRST WHITE HOUSE OF THE CONFEDERACY MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA | The First White house of the Confederacy was the executive residence of President Jefferson Davis and his family when the capital of the Confederate States of America was in Alabama. The 1835 Italianate style house is completely furnished with original period pieces from the 1850s and 1860s. The house served as the White House of the Confederacy from February through late May 1861. The house was the setting for lavish parties and receptions hosted by Mrs. Davis.
16: The Rosa Parks Library and Museum | The Rosa Parks Museum is located on the site of the old Empire Theatre where Mrs. Parks made her courageous and historic stand in 1955. The interpretive Museum occupies the first floor of the three-story, 55,000 square foot building that also contains the University Library. Artifacts include a 1955 restored station wagon, a replica of the public bu on which Mrs. Parks was sitting that day and original historical documents of that era. | ROSA PARKS
17: The National Voting Rights Museum | Located near Edmund Pettus Bridge, this museum offers pictorial history of voting rights struggle. It displays an exceptional record of events and participants that made Civil Rights history. | See that you not forget how this day the Lord has set our faces toward Freedom . --- Margaret Walker f
18: The Lowndes Interpretive Center documents the March from Selma to Montgomery by the African Americans in Alabama and their stuggle to gain voting rights and ultimately civil rights. It is located on the site of Tent City where they were forced set up camp when evicted from the farms and land owned by white people. | Lyndon Johnson signs the 1965 Civil Rights Act
20: General Nathan Bryan Whitfield moved with his family from Lenoir County, North Carolina to Marengo County, Alabama in 1834, opening a plantation about twelve miles south of Demopolis. Later he enlarged his holdings by purchasing a plantation already cleared in the Black-Soil Belt on the outskirts of Demopolis but now within the city limits. There he built Gaineswood from a two room cabin. | GAINESWOOD
21: ANCHUCA | We had lunch in the library. What a treat that was. | Anchuca, a Choctaw word meaning "happy home," is one of the most significant antebellum homes in Vicksburg. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, this Greek Revival landmark represents the first of the columned, mansions built in Vicksburg and was the last home of wealthy planter Joseph E Davis, brother of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy.
22: VICKSBURG NATIONAL | Vicksburg National Military Park is in the northern portion of the city of Vicksburg, MS. The park contains two visitors center, one at the entrance and one at the location of the U.S.S. Cairo, a restored gun boat pulled from the Mississippi River. The park commemorates the campaign, siege, and defense of Vicksburg. The city's surrender on July 4, 1863, along with the capture of Port Hudson, LA, on July 8, split the South, giving control of the Mississippi River to the Union. Over 1,340 monuments, a restored Union gunboat, and National Cemetery mark the 16-mile tour road.
23: The Shirley House is the only house still standing from the time of the Civil War and the Battle of Vicksburg. | MILITARY PARK | Restored U.S.S. Cairo, a gun boat sunk at the Battle of Vicksburg, was salvaged from the bottom of the Mississippi River in the 1960s.
24: The Old Court House Museum contains many artifacts from Vicksburg's history including confederate flags that were never surrendered, the tie worn by Jefferson Davis at his inauguration as Confederate President. There are fine portraits, china, silver and many relics from the Civil War. | VICKSBURG'S OLD COURT HOUSE MUSEUM
25: Restored 1890 building where Coca-Cola was first bottled anywhere in the world in 1894. The Museum contains reproduction bottling works, Coca-Cola memorabilia, 1900 soda fountain and restored 1890 candy store. Ice-cold Cokes, ice cream floats, Mississippi-made Luvel dipped ice cream and over 100 Coca-Cola items for sale in the gift shop. | Biedenharn Museum of Coca-Cola Memorabilia (1890)
26: THE DUFF GREEN MANSION | The lovely 3-story Duff Green Mansion was constructed by skilled slave labor and was used as a hospital for Confederate and Union soldiers during the Civil War. Today, many guests claim to see ghostly apparitions such as a one-legged confederate soldier who sits in the Dixie Bedroom which was used for surgery and a small child who bounces her ball down the stairs.
27: A magnificent 1840 Greek Revival Mansion overlooking the Mississippi River on 5 acres with formal gardens, gazebos, fountains and courtyards which are a prelude to the mansion furnished with many original antiques, including gas-lit chandeliers. A Union cannonball is still lodged in the parlor wall. One of the largest and most elegant bed and breakfasts in the South. | CEDAR GROVE MANSION B & B
28: In what is now northeastern Louisiana, highly civilized group of people left behind one of the most important archaeological sites in North America. The Poverty Point inhabitants, like the ancient Mayans, set for themselves an enormous task as they built a complex array of earthen mounds and ridges overlooking the Mississippi River flood plain. This accomplishment is particularly impressive for a pre-agricultural society. The central construction consists of six rows of concentric ridges, which at one time were five feet high. The five aisles and six sections of ridges form a partial octagon. The diameter of the outermost ridges measures three-quarters of a mile. It is thought that these ridges served as foundations for dwellings although little evidence of structures has been found. However, features and midden deposits uncovered during excavations support this theory. Poverty Point's inhabitants imported certain essential supplies from great distances. Projectile points and other stone tools found at Poverty Point were made from raw materials which originated in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains and in the Ohio and Tennessee River valleys. Soapstone for vessels came from the Appalachian foothills of northern Alabama and Georgia. Other materials came from distant places in the eastern United States. The extensive trade network attests to the complex and sophisticated society that built the Poverty Point earthworks. | The Mound Builders
29: Historic Natchitoches Site of Steel Magnolias | House used in the firm Steel Magnolias | Natchitoches was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. It is the oldest permanent settlement within the borders of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. Natchitoches was founded as a French outpost on the Red River for trade with Spanish-controlled Mexico; French traders settled there as early as 1699. The post was established near a village of Natchitoches Indians, after whom the city was named. After the United States' Louisiana Purchase of 1803, migration into the territory increased, and Natchitoches experienced a population boom. Several plantations were built along the Red River. However, the course of the river shifted, bypassing Natchitoches and cutting off its lucrative connection with the Mississippi River. A 33-mile (53 km) lake was left in the river's previous location. It became known as Cane River Lake. The lake runs through the city’s downtown historic district and Plantation Country. It serves as the spring break training location for numerous crew teams, such as the University of St. Thomas, Kansas State University, University of Kansas, Wichita State University, Murray State University, and Washington University. | The church where Shelby was married in "Steel Magnolias"
30: CANE RIVER CREOLE National Historical Park OAKLANDS PLANTATION | Oakland and Magnolia plantations are part of colonial Louisiana and the Creole culture along the Cane River area. The people were a mixture of French, Spanish, African and Indian descent. Both plantations raised mostly cotton, but Oakland also produced tobacco before switching to cotton. The Prud'hommes and LeComtes had their home at Oaklands and the Hertzog family still lives in the Mansion House at Magnolia.
31: Overseer's house and Slave Hospital | Blacksmith's Shop c. 1835 | Magnolia Plantation Store | Slave-built workers quarter with unusual corners and gables. | Cane River Lake
32: African House | Bedroom | Dining Room | The Melrose plantation was established by a family of "gens de couleur libre" (free people of color) around the time of the Louisiana Purchase. A 20th-century artist colony, Melrose was also the catalyst for Clementine Hunter.
33: Cami Henry, later owner of Melrose was a promoter of the arts and invited artists, writers and craftsmen to stay at Melrose. | Clementine Hunter and her paintings of slave life on the plantation
34: The Big Thicket is a unique biodiverse area near Beaumont, TX. Within the area can be found Slope Forests and longleaf pines, savannah wetlands and tallgrass prairies, bogts, baygalls and sandylands, floodplain forests and cypress sloughs. There are 85 species of trees, 1000 species of flowering plants, snakes, alligators, bears and deer.
35: McFaddin-Ward House Beaumont, Texas | When W.P.H. and Ida Caldwell McFaddin moved their young family into their house in 1907, Beaumont was still feeling the economic effects of the discovery of oil at nearby Spindletop in 1901. Already wealthy from the cattle business, the family prospered even further since Mr. McFaddin owned part interest in the land where the oil was discovered. The McFaddins' home, one of a number of grand homes built in town during the early twentieth century, was a glittering backdrop for the frequent entertainments and elegant parties the McFaddins hosted. In 1919, the McFaddins' daughter Mamie married Carroll Ward, and the couple moved into this home with her parents. They lived their entire married life here, making few changes to the house or its decor. | Parlor | Dining Room | Breakfast Room
36: MUSEUM OF THE GULF COAST Jurassic to Joplin | Exhibits interpret the history, natural history, art and popular culture of the Gulf Coast. Highlights include the largest indoor mural in the Southwest depicting the history of the region from prehistory to the discovery of oil at Spindletop, Music and Sports Halls of Fame, the John and Grace Snell Gallery of Decorative Art, the Robert Rauschenberg Gallery and much more! | Janis Joplin's car | early texas cabin | large mural spans four periods of texas history
37: On September 8, 1900, a hurricane struck Galveston. Winds estimated at 140 miles per hour swept through the city and left devastation in their wake. Galveston Island, which at its highest point was only 8.7 feet above sea level, was struck by a 15.7-foot storm surge. After the wind driven waters subsided, Galvestonians left their shelters to find 6,000 of the city’s 37,000 residents dead and more than 3,600 buildings totally destroyed. The 1900 Storm is still considered the deadliest natural disaster in United States history. | GALVESTON, TEXAS | Texas Independence Monument | Elissa, 1877 Tall Ship
38: THE WILLIS/MOODY MANSION | Reception Room and Library | Dining Room | Family Living Room | Restored to its turn of the century splendor, the 28,000 square-foot, four-story structure was completed in 1895. Today, there are 20 rooms on a tour that depicts the home life of a powerful Texas family. The Moodys established one of the great American financial empires. Based on cotton, it grew to include banking, ranching, insurance and hotels. W.L Moody Jr. bought the home from the heirs of the original owners soon after the great hurricane of 1900. Mr. and Mrs. Moody and their four children celebrated the first of more than eighty Christmas seasons in the house in December of that year. The house remained home for Moody family members until 1986. Today, its rooms are filled with the furnishings and personal effects of the family.
39: THE BISHOP'S PALACE | Built, 1886-1893, by Col. Walter Gresham, civic leader and U.S. Congressman. Nicholas J. Clayton was the architect of one of the most lavish and massive homes in US. The house is a Victorian adaptation of Renaissance style. The silver and onyx mantel in the music room won first prize in 1886 at the New Orleans Exposition. Mrs. Gresham painted murals on the ceilings and walls. In 1923, the Catholic diocese bought the home for the Bishop and converted one of the bedrooms into a chapel with stained glass windows.
40: BAYOU BEND COLLECTION | Miss Ima Hogg | Jame (Jim) Hogg | Jim and Sallie Hogg Ima Hogg and her brothers | James Hogg became the first native governor of the State of Texas. The discovery of oil made the family very wealthy. Sallie Stinson Hogg died of Tuberculosis when Ima was only 13. Ima then became the hostess of the family. She never married and because of her philanthropy she became known as the first lady of Texas.
41: AND GARDENS | In 1925, Miss Ima Hogg and her brothers, Will and Mike built their home on 14 acres of woodlands on the bend of the Buffalo Bayou. Ima was very active in the community and her fondness for music caused her to create the Houston Symphony in 1913. She also had a passion for collecting antiques which she used to create period rooms in her house. She planted beautiful gardens with many azaleas and camellias. In 1957, Miss Hogg donated the house and its contents to the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.
42: JOHNSON SPACE CENTER | Mission Control
43: Astronaut Training Center
44: GEORGE H. W. BUSH | Barbara Bush and Millie
45: LIBRARY AND MUSEUM | Formal setting for State Dinner | Camp David Office | "Free, free, set them free" is a monument to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall
46: Following the assassination of John Kennedy, Johnson had the monumental task of healing the country. During his administration he dealt with the tragedy of two more assassinations, that of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. He also inherited all the problems surrounding the Vietnam War. With all these difficulties, he was dedicated to eliminating poverty in the United States and ending discrimination. He pushed through hundreds of bills that created Medicare, Head Start and most notable the Civil Rights Act just to name a few. With all of the positive things that Johnson was able to accomplish, the Vietnam War caused him to decide not to run for a second term.
47: The Great Society
48: The Story of Texas The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum | The Texas State History Museum is the brain-child of Bob Bullock, former Lt. Gov. of Texas. The Museum tells the story of Texas' history from the early natives and appearance of the Spanish Conquistadors to the fight for Independence, annexation by the United States and the discovery of oil. There are three floors that explore in depth the stages of Texas history and the people who made it what it is today. Several theaters help to tell the story including the Texas Spirit Theater and the IMAX presentation of Texas: The Big Picture. | Texas Spirit Museum | Goddess of Liberty | IMAX Texas: The Big Picture
49: TEXAS HILL COUNTRY WINE TASTING
50: LYNDON B. JOHNSON NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK | Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park tells the story of our 36th President beginning with his ancestors until his final resting place on his beloved LBJ Ranch. This entire "circle of life" gives the visitor a unique perspective into one of America's most noteworthy citizens by providing the most complete picture of an American president. | LBJ Boyhood Home in Johnson City, Texas | All the World is Welcome Here -Lyndon Baines Johnson | Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. Rebehak Baines Johnson
51: JOHNSON SETTLEMENT | The Johnson Settlement includes the cabin built by LBJ's Grandfather when he came here to settle and drive longhorn cattle.
52: Rear view of the Texas White House
53: Lady Bird among her beloved wildflowers | Graves of President and Mrs. Johnson | LBJ's Office in the Texas White House | Lutheran Church adjacent to LBJ Ranch
54: NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE PACIFIC WAR | One of the most respected leaders of the Pacific Campaign of World War II was Chester Nimitz, who was born in Fredericksburg, Texas. The museum covers his families history through career in the Navy, his role during the WWII until his death in 1966. | Originally named The Admiral Nimitz Museum and housed solely in the historic Nimitz Hotel, the National Museum of the Pacific War has grown into a dynamic, first-class experience that can be enjoyed by people of all ages and from all backgrounds. In addition to more than 50,000 square feet of indoor exhibit space, the museum boasts an impressive display of Allied and Japanese aircraft, tanks, guns and other large artifacts made famous during the Pacific War campaigns. The National Museum of the Pacific War is the only institution in the continental United States dedicated exclusively to telling the story of the Pacific Theater battles of World War II.
55: The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas). All but two of the Texian defenders were killed. Santa Anna's perceived cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution. | I Shall Never Surrender or Retreat -- Victory or Death --William Barret Travis
56: SAN ANTONIO RIVER WALK
57: STEVES HOMESTEAD | Built in 1876 by German immigrant, Edward Steves, founder of a family prominent in city financial and social circles. This house is an excellent example of lavish Victorian architecture of late 1800s. Stuccoed limestone exterior, the walls are 13 inches thick. The richly decorated front porch reflects skilled carpentry and millwork.
58: SAN ANTONIO MISSIONS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK | The chain of missions established along the San Antonio River in the 1700s is a reminder of one of Spain's most successful attempts to extend its dominion northward from New Spain (Mexico). Collectively they form the largest concentration of Catholic missions in North America. | Mission Concepcion | Mission San Jose' | Rose Window
59: Mission San Juan | Mission Espada
60: The Guenther family immigrated to Texas from Germany in the 1800s, first to Fredricksburg and later moving to San Antonio. The Guenthers settled in the King William Street are building their flour mill on the San Antonio River and their home was built between the river and the mill. Today, the mill is still run by the Guenther family but the home has been converted to a restaurant and gift shop. We had breakfast there (huge biscuits with sausage gravy). Yum yum!!
61: In 1967, civic leader Walter Mathis purchased an 1876 Italianate home at 401 King William Street that had been subdivided into apartments and was in disrepair. Mr. Mathis embarked on a two-year, award-winning restoration of the house that inevitably launched him into the world of historic preservation. Following the restoration of his home, Walter Mathis purchased and restored other properties in the King William neighborhood. Mr. Mathis called his home Villa Finale because it was to be his final home. Mr. Mathis was a lifelong collector of European and Texan art objects. He left his home and a 12,000 piece art collection to the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
62: OLD SPANISH GOVENOR'S PALACE | Spanish Governor's Palace was constructed c. 1720 and was originally built to protect the nearby Alamo mission and a growing colony. Part of the building's historical significance rests in it being the only example of an aristocratic Spanish house that is left in Texas. The building has been praised by numerous historical societies and was once identified as the most beautiful building in San Antonio. The building has been used for several purposes and later became the seat of Texas government.
63: SAN FERNANDO CATHEDRAL | The original church of San Fernando was built between 1738 and 1750. The walls of that church today form the sanctuary of the cathedral, which gives rise to its claim as the oldest cathedral in the United States. The church was named for Ferdinand III of Castile, who ruled in the 13th century. The baptismal font, believed to be a gift from Charles III, who became King of Spain from 1759, is the oldest piece of liturgical furnishing in the cathedral. A coffin in the San Fernando Cathedral purports to hold the ashes of the Alamo defenders including James Bowie, Davy Crockett and William Travis. However, historians believe it more probable that the ashes were buried near the Alamo.
64: The Sullivan Carriage House | The Daniel Sullivan Carriage House, designed by Alfred Giles, was constructed in 1896 and moved stone by stone from its original location downtown. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it now serves as the entry point to the Garden and houses the gift shop, restaurant and meeting room.
65: PADRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE
66: Great Egret | Immature Ibis | Black Vulture | Spiderwort | Red-winged Blackbird
67: American Alligator | Great Blue Heron | Aransas National Wildlife Refuge is most notably known as the winter nesting home of the endangered Whooping Cranes. Here, too can be found pelicans, herons, egrets, roseate spoonbills, ducks, and geese dining in the brackish waters and salt marshes teeming with fishes, blue crabs and clams. Alligators can be found in the still waters of the ponds and sloughs and on shore are javelinas, bobcats and deer in the oak woodlands. | Whooping Crane
69: AMISTAD NATIONAL RECREATIONAL AREA | Pictorgraphs found on canyon walls | American Coot
70: JUDGE ROY BEAN AND THE LAW WEST OF THE PECOS | Bean built this building which he referred to as an Opera House hoping to entice Lillie Langtry to come and visit him but it was actually his home.
71: Who would have thought that in the middle of the Chihauhuan Desert of Big Bend National Park, that I would find a Quilt Shop. But there it was. Even though she was about to close, Marguerite invited me to come in and look around. She is a charming lady with of wealth of knowledge about both quilting and the surrounding area of Big Bend. We had a nice chat that made my day.
72: BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK RIO GRANDE WILD & SCENIC RIVER
73: Big Bend Wildlife that we didn't see | HOT HOT HOT
74: Tuff Canyon | Rio Grande River | Mule Ears | Pictures on these two pages look hazy because we had a dust storm today. Our views were limited on our drive down to Castolon. | Claret Cup Cactus
75: St. Elena Canyon | We finished our day with a drive through Big Bend Ranch State Park going toward Presidio and returned via Terlingua Ghost Town where we dined at the Starlight Theater Restaurant.
76: One of the best surviving examples of a post-Civil War frontier military post, Fort Davis played a major role in protecting travelers, mail carriers, and freighters on the San Antonio-El Paso Road from 1854 to 1891. Authorized a national historic site in 1961, its ruins and restored buildings -- many of which are furnished to the 1880s -- help tell its rich and colorful story. | Buffalo Soldier | FORT DAVIS NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE
77: We saw a live picture of a Solar Prominence | Solar Corona | Hobby-Eberly Telescope | Harlan J. Smith Telescope | After a short introductory video and a tour of the exhibits, we saw a live viewing of the sun through the telescopes at McDonald. Following the Solar viewing we toured the facility including a close view of the Harlan Smith and Hobby-Everly telescopes. What a cool visit.
78: CARLSBAD CAVERNS THE BIG ROOM Underneath the rocky slopes, canyons, cactus, grass, thorny shrubs, and the occasional tree, can be found more than 117 known caves - all formed when sulfuric acid dissolved the surrounding limestone. | The Doll's Theater
79: El Capitan | McKittrick Canyon | Guadalupe Mountains National Park From the low desert brush, inhabited by javelinas and desert reptiles, to the high, lush mountain evergreens with nesting golden eagles and amphibians, Guadalupe Mountains is a refuge for plant and animal species of all types.
80: Hubbard Museum of the American West | The Hubbard Museum of the American West is one of the most respected museums in the state, housing an extensive collection of Anne Stradling and is affiliated with the Smithsonian. It features a collection of carriages, wagons, saddles, fine art and Indian artifacts. The role of the horse in the American West is highlighted in great detail.
81: Fort Stanton Fort Stanton is the best preserved Fort built in the 1800s. It was created to protect settlers from the Apache Indians but later it became a Merchant Marine hospital for TB patients. It was occupied by both sides of the Civil War and later became an internment camp for WWII German sailors.
82: Remember, Only you can prevent forest fires. | Smokey as a cub when he was rescued from a forest fire. | Smokey at eight years old living in the National zoo. | Smokey's tombstone in Capitan, NM.
84: Rising from the heart of the Tularosa Basin is one of the world's great natural wonders - the glistening white sands of New Mexico. Here, dunes have engulfed 275 square miles of desert creating the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument preserves this dune field, the plants and animals that have successfully adapted to this constantly changing environment.
86: The village of Mesilla was incorporated in 1848, after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo moved the U.S.-Mexico border, placing it in the United States. A group of citizens, unhappy at being part of the United States, decided to move south of the border. They settled in Mesilla at this time. By 1850, Mesilla was an established colony. By this time, its people were under constant threat of attack from the Apache. By 1851, the attacks caused the United States to take action to protect its people just to the north of the border, in the Mesilla Valley. They did this by creating Fort Fillmore. As a result of the fort, the United States declared the Mesilla Valley region part of the United States. Mexico also claimed this strip of land, causing it to become known as "No Mans Land." This boundary dispute, which was officially caused by a map error, was resolved in 1853, with the Gadsden Purchase. Mesilla became a part of the United States, as well as the southern part of New Mexico and Arizona. Two battles were fought at or in the town during the Civil War. During the "Wild West" era, Mesilla was known for its cantinas and festivals. The area attracted such figures as Billy the Kid, Pat Garrett and Pancho Villa. The village was also the crossroads of two major stagecoach lines, Butterfield Stagecoach and the Santa Fe Trail. The village of Mesilla was the most important city of the region until 1881. La Mesilla Historic District, which includes Mesilla Plaza, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. In 2008, the Roman Catholic parish church of San Albino was raised to the status of minor basilica by the Holy See. | LA MESILLA
87: PINOS ALTOS | _ | In 1859, a group of Forty-Niners drifting home from California discovered gold in the Pinos Altos ("Tall Pines ") area. Once a booming county seat, Pinos Altos was a rough and tumble town of gold bonanzas and Apache raids. | Hearst Church | Fort Cobre | Opera House | Judge Roy Bean Store Site
90: Chiricahua National Monument | Created by a volcanic explosion 25,000 years ago, the Chiricahua National Monument is located at the intersection of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts, and the southern Rocky Mountains and northern Sierra Madre in Mexico. Chiricahua plants and animals represent one of the premier areas for biological diversity in the northern hemisphere.
91: Faraway Ranch | Faraway Ranch was a homestead in the Chiricahua Mountains built by the Erickson family and later popularized as a vacation spot because of the startling rock formations.
92: FORT BOWIE WE DID IT! | In order to see Fort Bowie, we had to drive 7 miles across a dirt washboard road to the Trailhead. Then we hiked for 1 1/2 miles into the fort past a mining cabin, a cemetery, an apache camp and the Butterfield Overland Mail Road and the Apache Spring. | 1886 | TODAY
93: Butterfield Overland Stage Route at Apache Pass | Apache Camp | Grave of Medal of Honor recipient in Fort Bowie Cemetery
94: TOMBSTONE, AT | Tombstone was once the biggest boomtown ever, producing over $30 million from silver mines in the 1880s. Many of the wildest scenes of the West took place within the saloons and other establishments of the town including the showdown at the O.K. Corral. Within ten years, the mines were flooded and the miners were on strike; but Tombstone prove to be "The Town Too Tough to Die."
95: GUNFIGHT AT OK CORRAL | On October 25, 1881, the Earp brothers, Virgil, Wyatt, and Morgan - and Doc Holliday walked northwest on Fremont Street toward the OK Corral, to disarm the Clanton faction. Tombstone's City Marshall, Virgil Earp, demanded the cowboys throw up their arms. Withing 30 seconds the bodies of Tom and Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton lay in the street (Virgil, Morgan, and Holliday suffered minor wounds.) One thing is known for sure - one of the Earps deliberately fired first, offering the cowboys little opportunity to obey Virgil's order.
96: It was a journey of exploration, filled with wonder and cruelty. Inspired by rumors of vast quantities of gold, 339 soldiers and over 1100 Indian allies embarked on an epic journey through arid deserts and rugged mountains. They brought rich traditions and new technology into the southwest, irrevocably changing the lives of the native peoples and continuing to influence the area today. | Stan tries the Conquistadors armor.
97: Mission as it looked in 1822 | Mission as it is today | The name "Tumacacori" was derived from the original O'odham name for their village. One possible origin of the name may have been the O'odham words chu-uma and kakul, having reference to a flat, rocky place. Father Kino established it as a mission in January 1691, one day before Guevavi, making it the oldest mission site in Arizona. For many years, though it was a visita or visiting station of the mission headquarters at Guevavi. During most of those years, it was located on the east side of the Santa Cruz River and was called San Cayetano de Tumacacori. Services were held in a small adobe structure built by the Pima inhabitanta of the village. After the Pima rebellion of 1751, the mission was moved to the present site on the west side of the river and renamed San Jose' de Tumacacori.