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History of Computers

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FC: History of Computers | Computers

1: History Of Computers | By: Miguel Mendoza

2: 1.electronic data processor: an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores, and outputs data at high speeds according to programmed instructions 2.somebody who computes: somebody who calculates numbers or amounts using a machine | What is a computer?

4: z1 computer | The Z1 was a mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse from 1935 to 1936 and built by him from 1936 to 1938. It was a binary electrically driven mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from punched tape.The Z1 was the first freely programmable computer in the world which used Boolean logic[contradiction] and binary floating point numbers, however it was unreliable in operation.[1][2] It was completed in 1938 and financed completely from private funds. This computer was destroyed in the bombardment of Berlin in December 1943, during World War II, together with all construction plans.

5: The Z1 contained almost all parts of a modern computer, i.e. control unit, memory, micro sequences, floating-point logic (the Boolean logic unit was not realized[contradiction]) and input-output devices. The Z1 was freely programmable via punched tape and a punched tape reader.[4] There was a clear separation between the punched tape reader, the control unit for supervising the whole machine and the execution of the instructions, the arithmetic unit, and the input and output devices. The Z1 was a 22-bit floating point value adder and subtracter, with some control logic to make it capable of more complex operations such as multiplication (by repeated additions) and division (by repeated subtractions).

6: The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like previous automated calculator/computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes. Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. | The First Computer

7: Nonetheless, it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1 divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal "ring counters," which served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register storage. The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the machine for the flow of computations.These connections had to be redone for each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches.

8: This year we went on a class trip to the Legion of Honor in San Francisco. We walked around the area a bit to take in the wonderful view and we saw art from the Victorian age. We also went on a nature retreat to the Muir Woods. Here we learned about our delicate ecosystem and how global warming has affected our local wildlife. We learned more about recycling and how to do our part to help the world. | This "wire-your-own" instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed. ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC's basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John V.

9: The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago in Babylonia (Mesopotamia), at the birth of the abacus, a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them.

10: Instead of having a carriage wheel turn the gear, he made each ten-teeth wheel accessible to be turned directly by a person's hand (later inventors added keys and a crank), with the result that when the wheels were turned in the proper sequences, a series of numbers was entered and a cumulative sum was obtained. | Blaise Pascal is usually credited for building the first digital computer in 1642. It added numbers entered with dials and was made to help his father, a tax collector. The basic principle of his calculator is still used today in water meters and modern-day odometers.

11: A step towards automated computing was the development of punched cards, which were first successfully used with computers in 1890 by Herman Hollerith and James Powers, who worked for the US. Census Bureau. They developed devices that could read the information that had been punched into the cards automatically, without human help. Because of this, reading errors were reduced dramatically, work flow increased, and, most importantly, stacks of punched cards could be used as easily accessible memory of almost unlimited size.

12: The start of World War II produced a large need for computer capacity, especially for the military. New weapons were made for which trajectory tables and other essential data were needed. In 1942, John P. Eckert, John W. Mauchly, and their associates at the Moore school of Electrical Engineering of University of Pennsylvania decided to build a high - speed electronic computer to do the job. This machine became known as ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator)

13: The size of ENIACs numerical "word" was 10 decimal digits, and it could multiply two of these numbers at a rate of 300 per second, by finding the value of each product from a multiplication table stored in its memory. ENIAC was therefore about 1,000 times faster then the previous generation of relay computers. ENIAC used 18,000 vacuum tubes, about 1,800 square feet of floor space, and consumed about 180,000 watts of electrical power. It had punched card I/O, 1 multiplier, 1 divider/square rooter, and 20 adders using decimal ring counters, which served as adders and also as quick-access (.0002 seconds) read-write register storage. The executable instructions making up a program were embodied in the separate "units" of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a "route" for the flow of information.

14: Early in the 50s two important engineering discoveries changed the image of the electronic - computer field, from one of fast but unreliable hardware to an image of relatively high reliability and even more capability. These discoveries were the magnetic core memory and the Transistor - Circuit Element. These technical discoveries quickly found their way into new models of digital computers. RAM capacities increased from 8,000 to 64,000 words in commercially available machines by the 1960s, with access times of 2 to 3 MS (Milliseconds). These machines were very expensive to purchase or even to rent and were particularly expensive to operate because of the cost of expanding programming. Such computers were mostly found in large computer centers operated by industry, government, and private laboratories - staffed with many programmers and support personnel. This situation led to modes of operation enabling the sharing of the high potential available.

15: 1. First ever microprocessor was “4004”. It is developed by intel. 2. First hard disk drive was introduced by Seagate in 1979, which could hold 5 M.B. of data. 3. First computer virus was written by Farooq Alvi brothers in 1986. 4. First Computer Company to register domain name was “Digital Equipment Corporation”. 5. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] sequence was written by “David Bradley”. 6. “The Dirty Dozen” is the name of 12 engineers who designed IBM PC. 7. HP (Hewlett Packard) was started at a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. 8. Micral N was the first personal computer built on Intel processor 8008 in 1972. 9. Largest four software making Companies are: Microsoft Adobe Sap Computer Associates 10. The Mosaic was the first browser, which was released in 1993.

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