S: Seasons of Change
FC: The Boxer Rebellion began in 1898. A group of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as I-cho-ch-uan. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. Another name for I-cho-chuan is "Righteous and Harmonious Fists"
1: Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the "Boxers") which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. At first, the Boxers wanted to destroy the Ch'ing dynasty.
3: By late 1899, bands of Boxers were massacring Christian missionaries and Chinese Christians. By May 1900, the Boxer Rebellion had come out of the countryside and was being waged in the capital of Peking
4: Boxer fighters threatened foreigners and forced them to seek refuge in the Legation Quarter.
6: International tension and domestic unrest fueled the growth and spread of the Boxer movement. First, a drought followed by floods in Shandong province in 1897-1898 forced farmers to flee to cities and seek food. As one observer said, "I am convinced that a few days' heavy rainfall to terminate the long-continued drought."
9: The Boxers themselves used modern weaponry, such as Krupp artillery and rifles. Their dislike of foreigners only extended to everything unrelated to weaponry.
10: Zaiyi was not just an ordinary prince, he was a member of the imperial Aisin Gioro clan, a blood relative of the imperial family (foreigners called him a "Blood Royal"), therefore, his son was his line for the throne. He became the effective leader of the Boxers, and he was extremely anti foreign like his friend Dong Fuxiang, and wanted to expel them from China.
13: The first reports coming from China in 1898 referred to the village activists as “Yihequan,” (Wade-Giles: I Ho Ch'uan). The first known use of the term "Boxer" was September 1899 in a letter from missionary Grace Newton in Shangdong. It appears from context that "Boxer" was a known term by that time, possibly coined by the Shandong missionaries Arthur H. Smith and Henry Porter.