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FC: WORLD HISTORY 1982
2: On June 6, 1982, under the direction of Defense Minister Ariel Sharon, Israel invaded Lebanon with a massive force, called Operation Peace for the Galilee, driving all the way to Beirut and putting the PLO and residents, as well as the Lebanese civilian population of that city, under siege. Israel justified its breech of the Habib cease-fire by citing the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador in London and a build-up of PLO armaments in South Lebanon. Israel was also concerned by increasing Syrian involvement in the Lebanese civil war and wanted to forestall a hostile, Syrian-backed government developing in Lebanon.
4: Carlos the Jackal had a number of bombings. Carlos, whose real name is Ilich Sanchez Ramirez. Ramirez allegedly sent a letter to the French Embassy in the Netherlands threatening violence if the two were not released by March 25, 1982. Four days after the deadline, a bomb hit a train traveling from Paris to Toulouse in southwestern France, killing five people. That was followed by a car bomb explosion on April 22, outside the Paris offices of the Arab newspaper Al-Watan, which killed one person. Carlos is also suspected in New Year's Eve. An explosion at a Marseille train station killed two people and a bombing of a TGV high-speed train in Tain-l'Hermitage in eastern France killed three
6: The first artificial heart intended as a permanent replacement is implanted December 2 at the Utah Medical Center in Salt Lake City; before dying of multiple organ failure March 23 of next year, retired dentist Barney B. Clark, 61, will live 112 days with the aluminum and plastic Jarvik-7 device designed by Midland, Mich.-born biomedical engineer Robert K. Jarvik, 36, still working. Jarvik has worked as a laboratory assistant at the Medical Center to Dutch-born kidney dialysis pioneer Willem Kolff. A patient given his device must remain connected via tubes to a compressed-air machine, so although they cannot really serve as permanent replacements the Jarvik-7 and subsequent Jarvik-designed hearts will be widely used for people awaiting natural transplants
8: On February 14, the world's largest oil rig ( The Ocean Ranger ) sinks in the north Atlantic. Sometime after 7pm the Ocean Ranger reported to the mobile shore base in St. John’s that a giant wave crashed over the rig smashing a porthole in the ballast control room. Water rushed in and shorted out circuits and the rig began to list. No one on board could stop what was happening. At 1:05am they requested that the supply ship come close and to stand by. At 1:09 it sent an SOS signal to search and rescue. All 84 crew members died. Over the next 4 days search teams were only able to recover 22 bodies, 2 life boats, and 6 life rafts. Autopsies showed those men had drowned. A Royal Commission looked into the disaster. It concluded the Ocean Ranger had design flaws, particularly in the ballast control room, and that the crew lacked proper safety training and equipment
10: On March 29, the combination of an earthquake and a volcanic eruption at El Chichon in southern Mexico converts a hill into a crater, kills thousands of people and destroys acres of farmland on this day in 1982. The eruptions, which continued for over a week, caught many of the area residents unaware and unprepared For most of the residents living in the shadow of El Chichon (also known as Chinhonal), the 4,500-foot mountain seemed to pose no danger. Because its last eruption was 130 years earlier and minor, most people ignored its potential for destruction and enjoyed the fertile soil its volcanic past provided. However, late in 1981, two geologists, intrigued by hot springs and steaming gaps in the earth near the volcano, did an investigation that revealed increased seismic activity and the possibility of a major eruption of the volcano. Unfortunately, their report was ignored.
12: The Falklands War between Britain and Argentina was by far the largest and most extended series of naval battles since the Pacific campaign in World War II. Designated Operation CORPORATE by the British, the five month war included the world's most significant amphibious operations since the Inchon landings in 1950, a logistics pipeline of over 7000 miles, and a winter combat arena 3300 miles from the nearest friendly base at Ascension Island
14: Verera 13 of the Soviets lands on Venus. Venera 13 Lander image of the surface of Venus at 7.5 S, 303. E, east of Phoebe Regio. Venera 13 survived on the surface for 2 hours, 7 minutes, long enough to obtain 14 images on 1 March, 1982. This color 170 degree panorama was produced using dark blue, green and red filters and has a resolution of 4 to 5 min.
16: The Mexican economy suffered a severe breakdown in 1982, which had long-lasting consequences. Many observers did not view the 1982 events as the traditional kind of slowdown of the essential change of administration. Indeed, the conclusion was that development strategy followed since World War II had run its course. In the current account of the balance of payments in 1981 the deficit amounted to US$ 12.6 billion. Foreign debt had grown to high proportions more than US$ 90 billion in 1982, equivalent to more than 50% of the GDP and one devaluation was followed by another in 1982. This crisis also triggered many Latin American countries to go in debt because they we relying so heavily on Mexico’s economy.
18: The first lethal injection for a capital crime occurred in Texas in 1982.The 40 year old African-American man had two doctors watched as the anaesthetic agents were injected into the man's veins, he was dead within minutes. The procedure was deemed a success. Since 1982,the number of executions and the percentage of lethal injections have increased at a rapid pace. Overall, 97% (155/160) of executions since 2000were performed by lethal injection. The execution rate in the United States peaked in 1999at 98executions a year, and it has declined over the past two years
20: On November 30 Michael Jackson releases Thriller, the biggest selling album of all time | The largest cash robbery in History occurs in New York when $9,800,000 is stolen from an armored car
21: December 26 – Time Magazine's Man of the Year is given for the first time to a non-human, the computer | On April 17, Canada adopts its own constitution and is politically free from the UK.