S: Romeo and Juliet
FC: William Shakespeare
1: Geography | England is divided in 48 ceremonial counties and is surround by the country of Wales and was predominately owned by England, Northern Ireland which is somewhat still in control of the English, and Scotland which in history has been in control of the English. This island is combined to be called the United Kingdom. The English Channel is a body of water to the south of the island which dumps out into the Atlantic Ocean to the east of the island is Ireland which is in some control by England.
2: Geography (cont.) | The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government. The highest tier of local government are the nine regions of England: North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the British Government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London. The same boundaries are used for electing Members of the European Parliament on a regional basis
3: Geography (cont.) | Average high C (F) Jan: 7(45) Feb: 7(45) Mar: 9(48) Apr: 12(54) May: 15(59) Jun: 18(64) Jul: 21(70) Aug: 21(70) Sep: 18(64) Oct: 14(57) Nov: 10(50) Dec: 7(45) Year: 13(55) Average low C (F) Jan: 1(34) Feb: 1(34) Mar: 2(36) Apr: 4(39) May: 6(43) Jun: 9(48) Jul: 11(52) Aug: 11(52) Sep: 9(48) Oct: 7(45) Nov: 4(39) Dec:2(36) Year: 6(43) Precipitation mm (inches) Jan: 84(3.31) Feb: 60(2.36) Mar: 67(2.64) Apr: 57(2.24) May: 56(2.2) Jun: 63(2.48) Jul: 54(2.13) Aug: 67(2.64) Sep: 73(2.87) Oct: 84(3.31) Nov: 84(3.31) Dec: 90(3.54) Year: 838(32.99)
4: Religion | Christianity played a major role in Elizabethan England as the country was torn between Catholicism and Protestant. Although the Queen was Protestant. The Shakespeare's portrayed themselves as Protestant although behind closed doors it appears as they're true belief is Christianity as that was the format of William Shakespeare's father's will. William chose to show his views and thoughts on the religion split in England in his plays making him a very hot topic in a time of censorship, often landing Shakespeare in problems with the English government. Today, England is predominantly Christian which is split into the Roman Catholic religion and the reformed version of Roman Catholicism called Anglicanism.
5: St. Paul's Cathedral (Anglican) in London | Canterbury Cathedral (Catholic) in Canterbury
6: Achievements | 1500 Publication of This is the Book of Cookery, the first known printed cookbook in English. 1503 24 January - Construction of Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster Abbey begins. 1505 Christ's College, Cambridge founded. 1509 Desiderius Erasmus writes The Praise of Folly. St John's College, Cambridge is founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort. St Paul's School (London) is founded by John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral. Royal Grammar School, Guildford, is founded by Robert Beckingham. Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Blackburn, is founded. 1517 Corpus Christi College, Oxford established by Richard Foxe. 1525 Wolsey founds Cardinal College, Oxford. | 1531 Thomas Elyot's book The Book Named the Governour is published, the first English work concerning moral philosophy. 1559 15 January - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. 1569 11 January - The first known lottery in England is drawn outside St Paul's Cathedral
7: Politics | 1503 Elizabeth Blount, mistress of King Henry VIII (died 1540) | Elizabethan Daily life - Religion Prior to the reign of Queen Elizabeth had England undergone massive religious changes. The break with Rome and the establishment of the Church of England by her father led to massive changes in Elizabethan Daily life. This major event occurred in 1531 when the Commons acknowledged the king as their "only and supreme lord and, as far as the law of Christ allows, even supreme head." In the Act of Supremacy of 1534, the caveat "as far as the law of Christ allows" was deleted. England no longer answered to the Pope in Rome. The Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII followed between 1536 and 1540 put vast sums of money into the royal coffers and saw Monks and Nuns homeless and many poor people without a place of refuge. These events had a profound effect on Elizabethan Daily Life. In just a few short years from 1531 religion in English Daily life changed according to the reigning monarch. The following information highlights the swift changes in religion which were dictated by the Kings and Queens of England immediately prior to the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1509 -1547 King Henry VIII - Catholic then established the Church of England in 1531 adhering to many Protestant doctrines 1547 -1553 His son, King Edward VI, adhered to the Protestant religion. Edward died young and was succeeded by his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey 1553 Queen Jane only reigned for nine days and was replaced by Edward's sister Mary 1553 -1558 Queen Mary was a staunch Catholic - she obtained the name Bloody Mary for her persecution of Protestants 1509 -1547 Queen Elizabeth succeeded Mary. She adhered to the Protestant religion but was tolerant to Catholics Queen Elizabeth provided stability to Elizabethan Daily life
8: Economy | Units of Currency & Value of Money The Penny was the basic monetary unit Farthing = 1/4 penny Half penny = 1/2 penny Threefarthing = 3/4 penny Penny = 1 penny = 1d Half groat = 2 pennies = 2d Groat = 4 pennies = 4d Sixpence = 6 pennies = 6d Shilling = 12 pennies = 1s Half crown = 30 pennnies = 2s 6d Quarter angel = 30 pennies = 2s 6d Crown = 60 pennies = 5s Half angel = 60 pennies = 5s Angel = 120 pennies = 10s Half pound = 120 pennies = 10s Ryal = 180pence = 15s Pound = 240 pence = 20s = 1 Fine Sovereign = 360 pence = 30s = 1 10s | Elizabethan Money and Currency - Wages Just as today the amount of wages was purely dependent on the job, or occupation. The Elizabethan lower classes would have only only traded in pennies - a pound would have been out of their reach in terms of spendable money and currency. Some examples of the wages which were earned during the Elizabethan period are as follows: A nobleman - 1500 to 3000 per annum A merchant - 100 per annum A parson - 20 per annum A carpenter - 13 per annum A laborer - 1500 to 3000 per annum A nobleman - 5 per annum
9: Society | Elizabethan Family Life Elizabethan Family Life was extremely close-knit. Many of the major elements of Elizabethan family life were determined by whether the family was poor and belonging to the lower classes or whether the family was wealthy. The main exception to this was religion, whether rich or poor, young or old, everyone in the family was expected to attend a Protestant Church Service every Sunday. Elizabethan Family Life for Women The Elizabethan family life for women was dominated by the men in the family. Elizabethan women were seen as inferior to men. They were subservient to the men in the family all of their lives and expected to obey the men in all aspects of their life. Disobedience was seen as a crime against their religion. Marriages were arranged to suit the family. Elizabethan women were expected to marry to increase the wealth and position of the family and then to produce children - preferably male heirs. There were no careers for women - and women and there were no schools for girls, so the majority were illiterate. Family and Home life depended on the skills of the women in relation to good house keeping and the health of the family was determined by the ability of Elizabethan women to produce medicines from the herbs available to them.
10: Society (cont.) | Elizabethan Family Life for Men The Elizabethan family life for men was one of power. The men made the decisions and the women were expected to obey them! The men were expected to support the family from a whole variety of occupations. And they were expected to improve the positions of all members of the family through influence and patronage from wealthier people and families than their own. Elizabethan Family Life - Religion The Religion of the Elizabethans was of huge importance to family life. The religion of the land was decreed by the reigning monarch. Mary Tudor ( Bloody Mary) was a staunch Catholic and so her people were expected to follow her religion - harsh penalties were inflicted on those who did not follow the Catholic religion in the reign of Mary. When Mary died and her sister Elizabeth succeeded to the throne the religion of England changed to the Protestant faith! The 1559 Act of Uniformity laws were passed in which attendance at church became compulsory and non-attendance was punishable by fine or imprisonment Elizabethan Family Life for Children Children were subservient to the adults in the family. They were raised to respect and obey their parents. Infant mortality was high during the Elizabethan era so the children of the family were cherished. They were given toys to play with - dolls, toy soldiers, hobby horses and the like. Wealthy children were taught good manners and would be punished, boys and girls, for any forms of bad behavior.
11: Society (cont.) | Elizabethan Family Life - the Home The homes of the Elizabethan family were clearly dictated by wealth. The daily hours of Elizabethan families were dictated by daylight - very much early to bed and early to rise. The architecture and building of New Elizabethan homes were built in the distinct half-timbered, black and white styles. The interiors had separate rooms and levels. The flooring was still strewn with rushes in many houses. There were wooden floors but slate or marble floors were only for the very wealthy families. There was no running water (water was obtained from water pumps, this practice caused outbreaks of Typhoid), their heat was produced by fires and their lighting produced from rush lights, candles or torches. The thatched roofs made a good home for rats and mice (the Bubonic Plague was carried by fleas and transmitted normally by rodents). Elizabethan family life was brought comfort by their homes - but also death. Elizabethan Life Marriages and Weddings Weddings in Elizabethan Life. Arranged Weddings and Marriages. The Dowry or Marriage Portion. The Elizabethan legal age to marry and the Age of Consent. The Church Wedding ceremony. The Elizabethan Wedding feast, the Wedding Reception & Food. .
12: Works Cited | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1500s_in_England http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England (verified by next 3 websites) http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-politics-and-government.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-period-money-and-currency.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-family-life.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare#Speculation_about_Shakespeare (verified by next website) http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html
13: William Shakespeare Early Life | William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, a successful glover and alderman originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptized there on 26 April 1564. His actual birth date remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April 1616.He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare probably was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but the curriculum was dictated by law throughout England, and the school would have provided an intensive education in Latin grammar and the classics.
14: William Shakespeare Teen Years and Marriage | John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage license 27 November 1582. The next day two of Hathaway's neighbors posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times,and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptized 26 May 1583.Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptized 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596.
15: After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theater scene in 1592, and scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years". Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare’s first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theater patrons in London. John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster. Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. No evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area
16: Shakespeare's controversy | Authorship: Around 150 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to emerge about the authorship of the works attributed to him. Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, and Edward De Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford. Several "group theories" have also been proposed. Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to question the traditional attribution, but interest in the subject, particularly the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, continues into the 21st century.
17: Religion: Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May 1583. However, over the centuries readers have pointed to Shakespeare's sonnets as evidence of his love for a young man. Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than sexual love. At the same time, the 26 so-called "Dark Lady" sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence of heterosexual liaisons. Sexuality: There is no written description of Shakespeare's physical appearance and no evidence that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving, which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness, and his Stratford monument provide the best evidence of his appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings and relabelling of portraits of other people.
18: Portraiture: Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when Catholic practice was against the law. Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, certainly came from a pious Catholic family. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by John Shakespeare, found in 1757 in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however, and scholars differ on its authenticity.In 1591, the authorities reported that John had missed church "for fear of process for debt", a common Catholic excuse. In 1606, William's daughter Susanna was listed among those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford.Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove either way.
19: Achievements | Hamlet: 555,000 Macbeth: 332,000 Romeo and Juliet: 272,000 Othello: 190,000 King Lear: 159,000 Julius Caesar: 153,000 The Tempest: 129,000 A Midsummer Night's Dream: 123,000 Richard III: 123,000 Henry V: 115,000 As You Like It: 108,000 Much Ado About Nothing: 101,000 Twelfth Night: 101,000 Henry IV: 98,600 Merchant of Venice: 94,300 Henry VIII: 81,500 Taming of the Shrew: 72,000 | Stratford Upon Avon | Shakespeare's childhood home | Richard II: 69,800 Measure for Measure: 58,300 Comedy of Errors: 54,300 King John: 47,300 Cymbeline: 46,800 Antony and Cleopatra: 45,200 Henry VI: 44,700 Two Gentlemen/Verona: 39,400 Coriolanus: 38,000 Timon of Athens: 36,100 Titus Andronicus: 34,500 The Merry Wives of Windsor: 32,400 All's Well That Ends Well: 29,900 Pericles: 27,700 Troilus and Cressida: 24,800 The Winter's Tale: 22,900 Love's Labour's Lost: 16,700 | Shakespeare's Plays and Popularity during his lifetime